U.S. Southern Ocean GLOBEC Measurements and Protocols

            compiled by Kendra Daly

  • Remote sensing: **Need estimate of size/frequency of files to be e-mailed**

  •         SeaWiFS and AVHRR (cloud permitting), SSMI (Raytheon)
            Quickscat - scatterometer winds (Beardsley)
            MODIS - sea ice, ocean color (Comiso)
            MSR - high resolution SSMI (Comiso)
  • 2 Campbell Scientific Automatic Weather Stations (deployed April Palmer cruise)

  • Moorings  **Need positions**

  •         WHOI:   Seabird temperature & conductivity, Vector Averaging Current Meters, upward-looking ADCP (300, 150 kHz                             broadband),   Seabird Paroscientific bottom pressure gauges, ASL Environmental Sciences ice-profiling sonars (ice thickness and velocity)

            SIO: Seafloor recorders (passive acoustics) to assess whales; continuous, 1 yr duration; off-shelf & shelf-edge, deployed on mooring cruise

            German: ??

    Shipboard and ice measurements

  • Standard Data Set (underway continuous sampling): pGPS, surface temperature & salinity, digital bathymetry (single track from 3.5 kHz PDR without sub-bottom profiling; LMG = Knudsen; NBP = Knudsen or BATHY-2000)

  • Meterological measurements:

  •             wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, incident radiation (shortwave, longwave, PAR)
  • CTD: **Calibration issues; especially salts & DO**

  •         dual sensors; DO, PAR, fluorescence, transmissometer?, Vernet fluorescence sensor, Seabird microstructure sensor, bottom pinger (12 kHz); lowered ADCP?, bottles
  • XBT

  • Sonobuoys (whale detection via call reception)

  • ADCP (hull-mounted, 153 kHz) **penetration depth?**

  • SOLO isobaric floats, March 2001(German cruise), May Survey cruise2002, November 2002 ? (British cruise)

  • WOCE SVP surface drifters (Lagrangian current): March 2001 (German cruise), May Survey 2001, November 2002 (British cruise), May 2002

  • Microstructure via turbulence profilers

  •         Ocean Sensors 100, Precision Instruments SCAMP-profiler (Seabird microstructure sensors on CTD)
  • SeaBeam 12 kHz (Palmer only)

  • Nutrients: (WOCE protocols, standards?) USF - survey cruise; UW- process cruise nitrate, nitrite, silica, phosphate, ammonium, dissolved oxygen

  • Chlorophyll a: fluorescence from CTD water samples

  • Primary productivity (daily productivity):

  •         PI curves, deck incubations, Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorescence from CTD samples, productivity profiles (water column and some ice)
  • Sea ice physical characteristics (July - Aug):

  •         Profiles of snow depth, ice thickness, ice freeboard every meter along a 100 m line
            Ice core profiles of temperature, salinity, oxygen isotope, crystallography
  • Sea ice optics (July - Aug):

  •         Spectral albedo and transmittance (400-700 nm) of snow and ice at selected sites.
            Time series of incident and transmitted irradiance (412, 440, 555, 650 nm) at 2 sites.
  • Sea ice buoys (5 total, July - Aug):

  •         Three - GPS, air temperature, barometric pressure
            Two - GPS, air temperature, barometric pressure, ice temperature, ice mass balance, incident and transmitted irradiance, fluorometry
  • Sea ice microbial community abundance and distribution (July - Aug):

  •         Species identification (live cultures, live and epifluorescent microscopy, net collections through ice, ice core profiles, CTD water samples), biomass, Chl a (cores and CTD samples).
  • Krill, zooplankton abundance and distribution (not funded):

  •         1 m (333 &micro m) and 10 m (3 mm) MOCNESS
                    CTD, DO, fluorometer, transmissometer, strobe light system, OPC (1m MOCNESS only); horizontal discrete depth hauls

                    2 m and 9 m (1/4 in mesh) Tucker trawls; oblique hauls

                    1 m (333 &micro m mesh) plummet net (downward fishing in ice)

  • Krill, zooplankton abundance and distribution (funded):

  •         HTI acoustic systems:
                    Gould: 38, 120 kHz (towed at 2 m)
  •  Palmer: CTD, fluorometer, transmissometer, 43, 129, 200, 420, 1000 kHz (upward and downward frequencies), tow-yo mode,           Video Plankton Recorder (VPR)



            ADCP (hull-mounted, 153 kHz both ships)
            ROV (under ice): WHOI SeaRover, 3-D VPR, CTD
            Under-ice video (handheld systems)

  • Krill net samples analyses: (not funded)

  •         Krill species identification, total length, stage
            Zooplankton species identification, stage
  • Krill analyses from experiments (funded)

  •         Length:dry weight
            Indirect development (Brinton et al. 1986),
            Reproductive status (Cuzin-Roudy & Amsler, 1991)
  • Krill rate and physiological measures:

  •         Gut fluorescence (Dagg & Walser, 1987)
            Gut contents (few) (Hopkins, 1985)
            Carbon and nitrogen egestion; fecal pellet production (Daly, 1997)
            Assimilation efficiency (Tande & Slagstad, 1985; Daly, 1997)
            Growth/molting (Poleck & Denys, 1982; Miller et al., 1984)
            Respiration (Torres et al, 1994)
            Excretion: Ammonium (Solórzano method); urea
            Proximate composition
                        Carbon, nitrogen, protein, lipid content (Torres et al, 1994)
            Enzyme activity (Torres & Somero, 1988)
            RNA:DNA (Torres et al., 1994)
            Lipofuscin content (Harvey ref)
            Lipid markers of diet history; biomarkers in food sources (POM, ice algae, etc.)
  • Krill population measures: ADCP (153 kHz), OPC

  •         Temporal change in population size-structure to assess krill shrinkage and mortality/advection rates
  • Krill aggregation behavior: ADCP (153 kHz), OPC

  • Top predators abundance and distribution:

  •         Fish (net tows, acoustics)
            Seabirds, penguins - strip-transects surveys (300 m wide) (Ainley et al, 1998)
            Penguins - ARGOS satellite tags, PTTs w/ dive/depth function
            Seals - ARGOS satellite tags, movement patterns, diving behavior (time/depth profiles), diving physiology; population genetics
            Whales - shipboard observation using standardized IWC line transect methods and laptop-base tracking program.
            Whale acoustics - seasonal occurrence, distribution, and minimum population estimates for baleen whales(only calling whales counted)
  • Predator diet:

  •         Fish: gut contents, length, weight, proximate composition, lipids, enzyme activity, RNA:DNA (Donnelly et al., 1990; Brightman et al., 1997)
            Seabirds - lethal take?
            Penguins - scat, stomach levage
            Seals - scats, stomach content, isotope, fat, animal condition
            Whales - behavior observations