Kendra Daly, contributor

LM GOULD space allocations

Jose Torres, chief scientist for the April-May process cruise started the discussions by developing a time budget for the open water process sites, which is summarized below.

Personnel                     Tasks                                                     Time                        Repeated

Costa/Burns                crabeater seals                                       2-6 h                      7x per cruise

Fraser                          penguins                                                  6 h                          15x per cruise

                                     Ice stations/opportunistic, no open water stops

Fritsen                         CTD in open water                                 1 h                          1/d
                                     CTD in ice                                               1 h                          1/d
                                     Ice station                                               3-4 h                      1/d
                                                       Requested 10L bottles for CTD
                                                       Sample forming grease ice/frazil ice w/buckets


Zhou                            ADCP survey 20 km box                        24 h                        2x per station
                                     1m MOCNESS                                         4 h                        2x/d

Daly                             HTI acoustic tow w/ ADCP (tow speed too slow?)
                                     HTI towed w/ net tows                                                         as possible
                                     HTI drift                                                   0.5 h                       1/d
                                     HTI on station                                                                        as possible
                                     Live net tows                                           1 h                          2/d

Torres                          10 m MOCNESS                                     3 h                          1/d (5/sta)
                                    Dive                                                           4 h                          1/d
                                     Meat tow                                                  1 h                          1/d

UW/nutrients              CTD

Perovich                      ARGOS drifter on floe (Sta 5?)
                                    + CTD survey                                           3-6 h                       1x/cruise
                                    Data loggers

Total time open water, 5 d per station

                2 ea ADCP                           48 h
                5 ea CTD                                5 h
                5 x - 2 ea/d MOC1               20 h
                5 x - 1 ea/d MOC10             15 h
                5 x live nets (2)                    10 h
                5 x meat tows                         5 h
                2 x diving                                 8 h
                                                Total     111 h = 4.5 d

Total time ice station, 5 d per station

Day operations:

Seals                6 h
Penguins          6 h
Dives               6 h
Ice                    6 h
CTD/optics      noon

Night operations:

ADCP              1 d - 24 h survey - predator survey, get predator info from Polarstern
MOC-1           8 h
MOC-10         3 h
Live nets         3 h
HTI drift          1 h
                        15 h other work
                          6 h for "day" work
                        21 h

15 d ice sta (3 x 5)
10 d open water (2 x 5)
25 d on sta

+3-4 d transit

= 28 science days, 4 d for weather + additional work

Zhou suggested finding krill first from the acoustic survey and then making tows at that site. The comment was made that the electronics tech should not be involved in the tows. Smith said that the mammal and bird watcher could look for ice. Captain Sanamo suggested using the gangway from the Gould for putting people off the ship for ice station work. Small boats can be launched in the lead of the ship. Martinson said that using the gangway on the portside of the Gould deck could interfere with wire operations while people are on the ice. Garrison indicated that some of the ice work will be compromised if broken up by ships. Costa asked if small boat operations were to be done during MOCNESS tows. Daly indicated that these would be done only in leads and Zhou said that the ship could cut channels in the ice for net tows.

Torres asked about lost time due to possible weather days on the continental shelf. Smith said that in open water, there will be problems working at the ice stations with winds over 35 knots. Fritsen said that ice operations can be done with basket except for conditions of big swells.

Station location/procedures
(1) Obtain predator/prey information from Polarstern and penguin satellite positions for general area
(2) ADCP survey 20 km grid, locate predators/prey aggregations
(3) Stop 6-7 h centered around midday daylight for diving, ice sta, penguins, and mammals
(4) Net tow, etc. during other hours, moving to new location inside grid

Process station site criteria
Sta 1 - objective to sample shelf, shelf break, and off shelf communities (ACC)
             1000 m isobath (ca 200 km offshore?)
             The August process group objected to a station so far off-shore and argued for the station to be located nearer to shore where they would be more likely to find ice in Aug.
                        We agreed to have a Sta 1a and 1b.  Sta 1b will be directly shoreward of Sta 1a.  Fritsen will collect samples for microbial biology at both locations (6 h stop).
             The August process group would like to investigate different ice types and to relocate same ice where drifter was deployed in April/May in order to examine the temporal
                         evolution of ice conditions.  L. Quetin would like 3 ice stations, 75-100 km apart, recoccupying 2 sites in 7/10-10/10 rafted pack ice.

Sta 2 - objective to sample canyon effects on hydrography, prey and predators.  Approximately in axis of canyon.

Sta 3 - objective to sample perennial pack ice, highest probablity of finding early forming sea ice (R. Smith - buoys deployed in June at ca. Sta 3 didn't move beyond 6 km for 1.5 m;
                         C. Fritsen didn't think that ice maps indicated perennial ice at this location.)

Sta 4 - objective to sample fast ice and deep into Marguerite Bay?

Sta 5 - objective to sample large predator aggregations.  The site of this station was especially questioned.  D. Costa said that Sta 5 was located to be in the vicinity of Dion Is,
                         which had seals and penguins.  Aggregations of seals and penguins during winter were sited approximately at the intersection of Sta 2 and 5 boxes.

The working group then put forward some criteria for selecting the process sites, which are summarized below.

    -site 1: open water, axis of canyon, shelf break
    -site 2: hydrography of canyon (axis of canyon), mouth of Marguerite Bay
    -site 3: good chance of having early forming ice field, midshelf NE of original site 3

    -after visiting site 1, move into shelf until finding suitable ice conditions
    -site 1B and 2: camp
    -with seals, be flexible to stop wherever seals are located

    -elements of ice studies: deployment of buoys, ice options, ice characterization (criteria:  driven by biological habitat)
    -location of ice for sea ice studies and krill mesh together
    -site 1A (offshelf): Fritsen reoccupy (8 hrs)
    -site 1B (camp): station further onshore from original site 1

Captin Sanamo said that site 4 is uncharted and that he is not sure how far into the site the ship will be able to get. Quetin said that sites 4 and 5 are not desirable for krill (temporal variability of larvae under the ice and distribution), but Fritsen said that site 4 is desirable for ice sampling. Smith suggested scouting for predators beyond site 2 as a way to find desirable sites.


Dan Costa, who is chief scientist for the July-August process cruise, next led a discussion of personnel and time budget issues for this cruise, which are summarized below.

Personnel                   Tasks                                                           Time Line

Costa                          7 tags of seals                                             6 hr/day

Martinson                  buoys (put out early  on station)                 1-3 hr
                                   optic measurements at noon                        2-3 hr
                                   ice properties                                                5-6 hr
                                   CTD                                                               1 every 1 hr
                                  dig hole                                                           6 hr
                                   ice camp operation

Fraser                       10 penguin tags                                             3 hr/day

Gibson/Garrison       ice sampling                                                  5-6 hr
                                  grind sample                                                   1 hr
                                  6-8 cores
                                  water samples from CTD
                                         (critters and H2O)

Harvey                     water from CTDs (organics)                         once
(coord. w/ Quetin)   krill larvae
                                  coordinate adult larvae sampling
                                           with NB Palmer
                                  krill net tows                                                  1 hr/day
                                  MOCNESS drift                                             2-5 hr
                                  net through ice drift                                        2-5 hr
                                  vertical tows                                                   20 min.

Quetin/Ross             ice algae (hole or wire as feasible)
                                  minimum of 2 dive holes                                 1 hr to make hole
                                  dives (4-5 per day)                                        1.5 hr each
*(will try to do dive weighting at Palmer Station to prepare for blue water mode; need 7-8 hours if not done at
Palmer; 5 days/site ideally)

Fritsen said that it is desirable to get into the water early in the day (operational plan) and do optics work at noon. There was general agreement that if a predator is seen, then the ship will stop and the animal will be tagged.


The process group next convened in plenary to discuss joint ship operations with the Palmer group.

Costa summarized some of the process cruise activities as: Fritsen will do microbial studies in open water at site 1 and move in until finding ice; next move into site 2 and if animals are present, then the group will move in to locate an ice camp; next site 3 will be occupied; move into joint ship operations at sites 4 and 5, assuming that the Gould can occupy these sites; and reoccupy sites as possible.

Torres brought up the issue of needing to make exchange between ships the two ships, such as samples for Harvey of adult krill from Palmer to Gould during August cruise. Wiebe said that the exchanges could be handled by zodiac in which collections done by Daly and Torres could be sent to the Gould. Daly asked Harvey how many and how quickly he needs krill samples. Harvey, said that he needs samples that are intact and live, within 1 week, freeze as go, starvation will not be an issue, minimum of 50-100 animals.

Torres asked about the transfer of the IWC person (Debbie Thiele) from the Polarstern to the Palmer. Wiebe said that this transfer will take place about 3 May at about the 4th line or so of the survey grid and could happen by zodiac. He said that radio contact information between the two ships needed. He also said that on the first cruise joint operations will be much easier because of the reduced sea ice cover.

Costa said that there is not a strong desire to get into Marguerite Bay during August and the preference is to reoccupy sites (ice camps where previous studies were done), The real issue is the need is to find animals wherever they may be and if animals are encountered in transit, then the ship will stop.

Wiebe emphasized the need for all planning to be efficient and flexible. The plan is to do stations while stopping to work with animals. After the survey is completed, the intent is for the Palmer to move into heavier ice regions and work with the Gould. He noted that process site 2 is an interesting site because of the bathymetry.

Costa asked if joint operations would be when the survey of Marguerite Bay was finished. Wiebe said yes and Daly noted that the satellite tags may help locate aggregations of animals. Costa indicated that seals go in winter is unknown and that it would be nice to get into Marguerite Bay region to see what animals are there in winter.

Wiebe asked if there were other issues and what do the process cruise people expect survey people to do in terms of sampling during joint operations. Costa that the primary concern is for the Palmer to get the Gould in/out of ice. Wiebe asked about measurements needed in the far field.

Fritsen asked about the window of time for joint operations at end of second cruise. Wiebe said that this had not been done yet and needed to be addressed.

Beardsley next said that he had talked to Chuck Stearns at the University of Wisconsin about the Automatic Weather Station deployment. The SO GLOBEC program will obtain from Stearns two weather stations which will be available for deployment on the first Palmer cruise. He asked about islands that might be suitable for deployment of these and how are they are to anchored. Hofmann said that she had checked on possible sites and that two had been suggested which are not not protected sites. These are Henkes Island and Faure Island and they are in the vicinity of site 2. Costa and others made suggestions about anchoring the weather stations.