Vertical Fine Structure Beneath the Ice of the Western Antarctic Peninsula Shelf in Austral Winter 2001 – NBP0104
Jason Hyatt, WHOI-MIT
Robert C. Beardsley
John M. Klinck
Eileen E. Hofmann

Vertical Structure – Vertical Fluxes
Scale Separation from horizontal processes.
Flux estimates have been made based on budgets.
Analysis of the vertical structure may help us understand and better quantify the mechanisms of vertical heat and material fluxes.
Heat melts ice.  Krill like heat!

The winter cruise platform was more stable than fall due to ice cover

The Surface Mixed Layer

Surface mixed layer depth

An example of a layered vertical structure in main pycnocline

Double Diffusive Convection
Stable Salt Stratification, unstable thermal.
Heat diffuses 100x faster than salt
Density is dominated by salt gradient

Possible mechanisms for pycnocline layers
Diffusive regime of DDC.  Observed in the Weddell Sea (Muench et al, 1990).  Easily disrupted by…
Internal wave breaking turbulence.  Probably a factor in areas with topography or boundaries.
Iceberg induced turbulence?

Where the steps occurred

Strong layering within pycnocline present at a few stations

Often Interesting Structure around Tmax

A Possible Scenario…

Summary of Vertical Structure for Winter 2001
Surface Mixed Layer deepens at the shelf break and in Marguerite Bay, and shallows over the center of the study area.
A few stations show strong layering.
Steps in main pycnocline of “Type A” present near boundaries and topography.
Sometimes structure near Tmax.   Shear?

Future Work…
Look further into possible mechanisms, and estimate fluxes associated – reasonable values?
Raw scan data.
Fall data.
Biomapper data.
Internal wave energy spectra from moorings.
Interleaving, anyone?
Do Krill like turbulence?

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