From 1-3 August 1997, the Southern Ocean Planning Group of the International Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics (GLOBEC) Program and other interested persons (ANNEX 1) met at the Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute in San Diego, CA. The objective of the meeting was to develop cruise and sampling plans for a Southern Ocean GLOBEC program and to begin the development of the infrastructure needed to coordinate and undertake such a program. The starting points for the workshop discussions were the Southern Ocean GLOBEC (SO GLOBEC) science and implementation plans that were published in International GLOBEC Reports 5 and 7, respectively.
The first portion of the workshop agenda (ANNEX 2) consisted of reviewing the existing SO GLOBEC documents and providing updates on GLOBEC activities in several countries. Following this, considerable discussion focused on recent studies that have shown the importance of sea ice in structuring the Antarctic marine ecosystem (e.g., Siegel and Loeb, 1995, Marine Ecology Progress Series). It was noted that the interactions between penguins, krill, and sea ice were not explicit in the existing SO GLOBEC science questions and it was felt that these questions needed to be amended or rewritten to include this aspect of the Antarctic marine ecosystem. The meeting participants also felt that the breadth of the SO GLOBEC program should be more narrowly focused in terms of target species and location. The modifications to the existing SO GLOBEC science and implementation plans are detailed in the following sections. A formatted version of this report can be obtained at http://www.ccpo.odu.edu:80/Research/globec/aug97meeting/final.html.
The major change suggested for the science aspect of Southern Ocean GLOBEC was to select Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) as the primary target species. The focus on Antarctic krill includes the habitat, prey, predators, and competitors of this species. The science questions for the zooplankton and top predator target species were modified to reflect this narrowing in focus and are given below.
Also, the meeting participants felt strongly that the SO GLOBEC program should be a year-round study, with emphasis on austral winter processes. Recent evidence indicates that seasonal coverage is necessary to fully understand the linkages between the environment, krill, and top predators. This is also reflected in the revised science questions.
The field portion of Southern Ocean GLOBEC is scheduled to begin in 1999/2000 and will focus on two primary sites: the Antarctic Peninsula region and E and the surrounding area. The Antarctic Peninsula region will be studied through a multi-nation, multi-ship effort in order to obtain seasonal coverage, especially in the austral winter. Studies in the E region will be primarily seasonal. Specifics of the two primary sampling sites are given below. Additional Southern Ocean GLOBEC field sites are encouraged. These may cover a single season, such as austral summer, but with a focus on Southern Ocean GLOBEC questions. Furthermore, the use of ships of opportunity to obtain measurements at other times and locations is encouraged. Given the differences in the environment and marine ecosystem in the austral winter and summer, the Southern Ocean GLOBEC studies for these times will not necessarily be the same. The site selection, detailed below, reflects the desire to have one field program that is designed to follow an entire overwintering cycle of a krill population during one year. Other sites will focus on various processes during autumn, winter, and early spring, which in general are of importance in the krill life cycle. Thus, the multiple sites will provide overlap in activities but with a slightly different focus for each of the areas.
It was recommended that, in the Antarctic Peninsula region, Southern Ocean GLOBEC follow the general guidelines given in the Implementation Plan (GLOBEC Report No. 7). Two major multinational projects should be planned, each with a minimum of six months duration. These would include a Summer Study, focused on foraging and recruitment, and a Winter Study, focused on overwintering strategies.
The research format should consist of two elements: a synoptic, mesoscale Time Series Survey over an area of 40,000 and Process Studies aimed at understanding phenomena and mechanisms of crucial importance in the survey area. These two elements would alternate at two-week intervals, providing a continuous research effort over a period of six months for both the Summer Study and the Winter Study.
It was agreed that a site for the Time Series Surveys in the Antarctic Peninsula region should be chosen according to the following dominant criteria:
The last criterion was deemed especially important, as a need was acknowledged to follow target populations during each six-month study period, rather than to cause the survey grid to be fixed in space. Furthermore, the need was acknowledged to assure that the time series measurements will resolve population dynamics of krill, which demands that measurements be made at intervals of no less than two weeks throughout the Time Series Survey.
The optimal site was recommended to be near Anvers Island, as this site appears to best satisfy the criteria outlined above. Both krill and predator populations occur in the region, which is definitely subject to seasonal ice coverage. The probability that the survey grid would be strongly advected is thought to be much lower than further east in the Peninsula region, where strong eastward advection is known. To the contrary, there is evidence for a recirculating gyre in waters northwest of Anvers Island. Advection of the survey grid from this area is likely to be minimal by comparison to other sites. Sites further to the west (i.e., the coastal Bellingshausen Sea) are often subject to ice cover for the entire year and thus might not be accessible during summer to vessels that are not ice-strengthened.
Two windows of opportunity appear within the next 4 years, during which times it appears possible that ice-strengthened research vessels of several nations would be able to coordinate activities for a repetitive Time Series Survey. The first such opportunity is during 1999. The Polarstern will be in the region from March through May, which provides an opportunity to obtain winter measurements. There are plans for a Japanese vessel to be present in the region the following summer, though it is dedicated to research in an area of secondary priority, north of Livingston Island. The second opportunity does not appear again until 2001, when both the Polarstern and the James Clark Ross might again be present, but this period would be earlier in the year and most likely would allow for coverage in the summer.
It was recommended that detailed planning and logistic preparations be discussed in a forthcoming regional planning meeting, with all interested parties present. There is a need for such a planning meeting to happen very soon so that ship schedules may have time to be accommodated.
SO GLOBEC studies in the Indian Ocean sector present a different set of opportunities and limitations from those proposed in the South Atlantic. The coastline of the Antarctic in Southern Indian Ocean runs approximately parallel to the lines of latitude and the major current systems for much of the region between E and E, yet there are major regional differences in the amount of seasonal and permanent ice cover. This region thus has the potential to be a natural laboratory for the study of the effects of the physical environment on the marine ecosystem. The South Indian Ocean sector may also be more "typical" of large sections of the Antarctic coastline and is a region which offers a contrast to the better studied Antarctic Peninsula region.
There are far fewer research stations in East Antarctica (~8 between 40-E and there are fewer opportunities for marine research because few research vessels operate in this region. There has been some fishing activity in this area in the past, but there has been no krill catch from the South Indian Ocean sectors for the last three years. The waters of the continental shelf in this area have been studied little except in specific areas, e.g., Prydz Bay, and there are few long-term data sets either from land-based studies or from ship-based surveys. Because of these limitations, studies in the Southern Indian Ocean will have to address a subset of the questions that SO GLOBEC has posed.
This question can be rephrased as several related sub-questions:
These questions can be addressed in the Indian Ocean sector through a combination of shore-based and ship-based studies.
This question is probably intractable in the Indian Ocean sector. It requires considerable information on krill distribution and abundance and the dispersion patterns of krill. There is little historical information of this nature and it is unlikely to become available in the short to medium term. There is some possibility, however, that minke whale data may provide some information pertinent to this question.
Information on the year-to-year variation in the predator parameters is available from CEMP studies (at Mawson station) and from other long-term studies in the Indian Ocean Sector. Question (i) is currently amenable to study, while question (ii) is unlikely to be possible due to lack of long-term krill data.
The needed predator measurements are: winter distribution and behavior of key predators, breeding success, and population size. Data sources for these are from time series at selected sites (e.g., CEMP sites), experimental studies, and coordinated-ordinated land-based and ship-based research.
These research questions can be further reduced. Questions 1 and 4 can be combined as:
This question requires seasonal and geographic-based studies.
Research questions 2 and 3 can be rephrased as:
Studies in the Indian Ocean sector will be able to address several aspects of these questions.
Potential krill overwintering strategies consist of: a) shrinkage, b) metabolic reduction, and c) feeding on/under ice algae, benthos, protozoans, and/or zooplankton. The question is then what physical/biological factors determine which strategy is followed?
The krill measurements needed to differentiate the various possible overwintering strategies are: growth rates, metabolic rates and biochemical measurements, condition factor, reproductive rates, and feeding. The latter further requires studies of diet analysis, feeding rates, and food selectivity. Studies in the Indian Ocean sector will be able to address these questions related to overwintering strategies through field and experimental studies.
The types of data sources needed to address SO GLOBEC questions are listed and the likelihood of obtaining these is indicated.
Given the focus of SO GLOBEC there are only a few locations in the Indian Ocean sector where a study might be possible. These locations are highlighted because they are the sites of existing or past land-based studies and are in locations where land-based predators access the krill-based ecosystem. These locations are also situated where there is some (limited) knowledge of the marine ecosystem from past ship-based studies and where there are planned ship-based activities in the next 5-10 years.
Mawson (~E) Positive features Existing CEMP Site (5 years of data) Other well studied predator colonies (emperor penguins, petrels) Close to krill-based ecosystem High ice cover area Regular occurrence of coastal polynya
Negative features Distance (at least 12 days from Australia) High ice cover (increases transit time)
Syowa station (~E) Positive features Well studied predator colonies Selected CCAMLR monitoring site Negative features Distance (at least 15 days from Australia) Difficult ice conditions No planned winter access
Dumont d'Urville (~E) Positive features Studied predator colonies Low ice area Short travel time (~6 days from Australia) Oceanography/glaciology well studied Recent commercial fishing nearby Nearby coastal polynyas Negative features Probably not krill-based system Second low-ice study area
Casey Station (~E) Positive features Studied predator colonies Shorter travel time (~6 days from Australia) Recent commercial fishing nearby Negative features No CEMP site Difficult ice conditions
Davis Station (~E) Positive features Studied predator colonies Travel time (~10 days from Australia) Good experimental facilities Best offshore data base (Prydz Bay) Negative features No CEMP site Difficult ice conditions Not krill-based ecosystem Situated in embayment (Prydz Bay)
The site chosen for SO GLOBEC will obviously depend on the questions being addressed but will also have to take into account national priorities and the availability of both land-based and ship-based facilities. Planned Australian marine research could address SO GLOBEC questions 2 and 3. This list is tentative and the list of research programs is firm only for the 1998/99 season.
1998/99 August/September Polynya study ~E December Seal Survey as part of APIS 1999/2000 November Ice edge bloom time series February-March Krill/zooplankton fine scale studies off Mawson Station.
Beyond this season, the vessel schedule is not well defined; the nature of the vessel operation (number of ship, type, etc.) is still under negotiation.
The workshop participants recognized that a data management policy was a priority for SO GLOBEC. Such policies are already in existence for other multi-national, multidisciplinary programs (e.g., JGOFS, International GLOBEC) and the consensus was that these policies cover the issues of concern to SO GLOBEC. Therefore, the existing data policy adopted by the International GLOBEC program was modified for SO GLOBEC. This data management policy is given in ANNEX 3.
The meeting participants also identified the need for Data Management and Modeling Working Groups and recommended that these groups be formed as soon as possible. Nominations are being solicited for membership in these working groups.
Since the Southern Ocean GLOBEC program will consist of several sampling sites and involve participation by multiple nations, the meeting participants identified the establishment of an international coordination office as a priority. The location of this office is yet to be determined. However, all meeting participants were requested to investigate the possibility of hosting this office or providing support for such an office.
The ice breaker, the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer, is the best potential platform for U.S. SO GLOBEC field activities because of the focus on winter processes. The current allocations for requested ship time for projects funded by the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs have this vessel scheduled for January through July of 1999. At present, this vessel is available for 2000 and 2001; however, proposals are pending with the Office of Polar Programs for field studies during this time. Continued availability of the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer is contingent upon future funding decisions.
The German research vessel, Polarstern, will be in the Southern Ocean from March to May 1999 to undertake biological research. This time is confirmed, however, it is still to be determined the amount of this time that the Polarstern will be able to work in the Antarctic Peninsula region. Logistical constraints on ship time are still to be worked out.
Three potential contributions to the SO GLOBEC field program, in terms of cruises, from the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) were considered and discussed. The first was a cruise on the RRS James Clark Ross (JCR) in the June-September 1999 period. This would follow the 1999 March-May Polarstern cruise and precede a potential U.S. cruise. Unfortunately, there is no possibility of BAS being able to support a JCR cruise at this time.
The second possibility is a cruise in the winter of 2000, which is ideal for the U.S. program, or 2001, if 1999 is impossible. Unfortunately, BAS cannot mount a winter cruise during this time because all its marine staff will have been committed to two 30-day cruises (Core Programme and Krill Biomass Survey) in the 1999/2000 summer. However, the JCR could be made available for a winter cruise if there were external resources (e.g., via a UK Thematic Bid to the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and/or via technical and scientific collaboration with other potential participants in the cruise (e.g., AWI, LTER, etc.)) to complement a reduced BAS staff input.
The third possibility is a BAS/UK summer cruise in SO GLOBEC Antarctic Peninsula study area. If a cruise in winter 2000 has not taken place, then the Marine Life Sciences Division (MLSD), BAS would expect to be able to undertake a 30-day cruise in the SO GLOBEC study area (and linked to Rothera) in the spring-summer of 2000/2001. If a winter cruise has taken place, it will not be possible to undertake a summer cruise until 2001/2002 at the earliest.
The BAS can provide to SO GLOBEC results of krill-related research based at/around Rothera (including physiology and related work). It should be possible to undertake appropriate work for SO GLOBEC and to offer collaborative opportunities at Rothera in the summer of 2000/2001. Note that in the adjacent summers, the life science priority at Rothera is allocated to terrestrial sciences. Marine science has the priority in 1998/99, 2000/01, 2002/03. This does not preclude small-scale collaborative work in terrestrial seasons.
Support for the use of BAS aircraft for survey work over ice and adjacent areas would probably be limited to the summer period. The cost of wintering a twin otter and crew at Rothera would likely be prohibitive, even if technically feasible.
The planned Australian activities in next 5 years that could support SO GLOBEC related research are:
Winter 1998: joint Australia/U.S. polynya project (Aurora Australis and Nathaniel B. Palmer) in E region. Mainly physical but considerable possibility for biological research. Contacts for biological elements--Australia, Steve Nicol and U.S., Walker Smith and Ray Smith.
1998/99: APIS surveys late spring.
Future years: fine scale survey for krill off Mawson Base (E). Possible SO GLOBEC link.
winter--polynya study near Mawson (E). Possible SO GLOBEC link.
Mawson Base continuing CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program.
Also opportunistic ship-based studies on up to 7 voyages/year. Laboratory-based studies on krill using aquarium facilities at Antarctic Division in Hobart.
The Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) has been conducting routine oceanographic and marine biological observations onboard the icebreaker, Shirase, in the Indian sector of the Antarctic Ocean. The ship leaves Fremantle, Western Australia in early December and arrives at Syowa Station (E, S) in mid-late December every year. The ship leaves the Syowa Station area in mid-late February and arrives at Sydney, Australia in mid-March. A total of 15-25 oceanographic stations are occupied along the cruise track every summer. In recent years, the SO-JGOFS-related observations were carried out at the so-called Indian sector time series station (S, E), which was established as the French initiative station. Time series observations are now carried out as part of the French-Australia-Japan collaborative framework of SO-JGOFS. Japan is now conducting time series sediment trap experiments. Continuous measurements of surface chlorophyll a, zooplankton abundance, and related parameters are made onboard and measurements of in water and in air are also carried out. Since the 1997/98 summer season, satellite data from the SeaWiFS sensor is received onboard. The Sea Ice and Penguin Study (SIPENS) has been carried out at Syowa Station to clarify Adélie penguin foraging behavior and breeding success, particularly in relation to the variability of sea ice.
The Kaiyo-Maru, operated by the National Research Institute of Far Seas Fisheries, is planning to conduct a research cruise in the Scotia Sea region for the 1999/2000 austral summer season in connection with the CCAMLR synoptic survey in Area 48.
In connection with the IWC program, Japan has been conducting the Japanese Whale Research Program under special permit in the Antarctic since 1989/90. The program is scheduled for a 16-year duration and focuses on the IWC Whaling Area IV (70-E) and Area V (E to W) in alternate years.
The T/S Umitaka Maru (Tokyo University of Fisheries) and R/V Hakuho Maru (Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo) are potential ships of opportunity in the near future. However, the exact schedule for these ships has not yet been decided at this stage. These two ships participated in the BIOMASS program and have made other research cruises in the Southern Ocean in recent years.
The Polar Research Center of the Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute (KORDI) has conducted oceanographic and biological surveys in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean since 1988. The main objectives are: 1) to understand structure and function of the marine ecosystem in the Weddell Sea marginal ice zone and geochemical process on particle flux and energy flow, and 2) to understand energy and carbon flow connecting marine and terrestrial ecosystem near King Sejong Station with relation to global environmental changes.
The biological oceanographic research was designed to examine physical and biological processes that give rise to high biological productivity in the marginal sea ice-edge zone of the northwestern Weddell Sea and to look for a phytoplankton bloom effect over all trophic levels. In the 1996/97 season, the cruise included 22 stations in the Weddell Sea ice-edge region. This cruise focused on a small but representative geographic region, with a research plan for high-resolution sampling. A new understanding of ecosystem dynamics and the mesoscale upper-ocean circulation can emerge only from intensive study of a more restricted geographic region. Our study has investigated two major questions: 1) what are the mechanisms which result in enhanced productivity at all trophic levels in nearshore waters? and 2) is the ice-edge region an ecological interface among distinct biological communities, one associated with the open ocean and one with ice-edge waters, and, if so, what are the dynamics of these regional communities? To address these questions, we measured the distributions of bacteria, phytoplankton, and zooplankton and, whenever possible, their rate processes, over a wide range of conditions in the different regions and the relationships with physical and chemical parameters.
In the coastal region, field and laboratory work had been done on shallow water benthic organisms at King Sejong Station on King George Island. Experimental studies on feeding physiology and ecology of the Antarctic benthos in Marian Cove (King George Island) had been conducted to evaluate the contribution of benthic species to organic carbon flux in the Antarctic coastal waters. Research was focused on adaptive strategies of marine benthic invertebrates and the role of benthic communities in the carbon cycle. Summer metabolic rates of a dominant infauna, the bivalve, Laternula elliptica, were determined to get better understanding on its ecological and physiological strategies dealing with extremely seasonal food availability. Measurements of nutrient fluxes from benthic communities were conducted using diver-operated in situ chambers to quantify the organic matter processed by nearshore benthic communities.
Seasonal variations in species composition, abundance, and productivity of water column microalgal populations were also investigated in the nearshore waters near the station in order to understand the dynamics and, furthermore, to clarify the interactions with benthic communities. Related oceanographic and meteorological parameters, such as ice cover, seawater and air temperature, salinity, wind speed, and UV-radiation were also routinely measured over the year of 1996. As part of long-term monitoring of human impacts, heavy metal accumulations in indicator species, such as marine mollusks, are being assessed.
South Africa does not have any specific GLOBEC-related plans at this stage. Activities currently planned for the next two austral summers are:
1997/98: joint cruise to eastern Weddell Sea with Sweden. JGOFS focus
1998/99: joint cruise with New Zealand. Circumpolar passage(?) with JGOFS work on Polar Front south of New Zealand and krill-predator study in Ross Sea. Latter likely to have SO GLOBEC relevance.
Post-2000: the national Antarctic program enters the next cycle of five-year funding. At this stage, pre-planning as noted the potential significance of SO GLOBEC-related studies. Such research could be built around joint ventures, possibilities include focusing on the CCAMLR Ecological Monitoring Programme site at Bouvet Island where there is currently cooperation with the Norwegian program.
Research by the British Antarctic Survey, centered around the island of South Georgia, contains several elements of direct relevance to the objectives of SO GLOBEC. The current program of ship-based research includes studies of interannual variability in the physical environment and in key plankton stocks and processes and a series of process-study cruises. Two cruises in 1997-98 will examine plankton interactions in the beginning of the growing season and geneflow in key species in the Scotia Sea and Antarctic Peninsula region. Analysis of archive acoustic data has also been used to examine the large-scale transport of krill stocks to South Georgia and planned studies aim to determine the physical constraints on the location and duration of krill swarms. Work on higher predators and their interactions with the plankton and nekton food supply is also carried out, as part of a long-term research program on Bird Island. This is complemented by at-sea observations of predator distribution in relation to environmental variability and prey distribution.
There is also a strong UK GLOBEC community which has expressed an interest in Southern Ocean studies. The UK GLOBEC committee has resubmitted a proposal for a thematic funding bid to NERC. Although primarily focused on UK territorial waters, the bid includes research components which are directed at more general aspects of zooplankton interrelationships with their environment. Such studies would use the Southern Ocean as a site, but funding is not available for this at present.
Krill is the target species of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC program with a particular focus on krill habitat, prey, predators, and competitors. It will be a year-round study, with emphasis on winter processes concentrating on two primary field sites. German contributions will be carried out around the Antarctic Peninsula using the German research vessel, Polarstern, focusing on late autumn/early winter behavior of krill with respect to overwintering habitats (team leader: V. Smetacek, Bremerhaven). Additional activities are detection and measuring of krill schooling, swarm formation, and grazing activities (U. Bathmann, Bremerhaven); investigations of age-classes and developmental stages (V. Siegel, Hamburg); determination of enzymatic and physiological characteristics of krill stages (H.-O. Portner, Bremerhaven and F. Buchholz, Helgoland); studies on the under-sea-ice habitat as a potential hiding ground for krill (G. Dieckmann, Bremerhaven); and investigations on krill food sources (S. Schnack-Schiel and U. Bathmann, Bremerhaven). To supplement this program, Australian, Japanese, and South African scientists will study the second field site, which is located at E. Here, the same scientific approach will be followed, however, with seasonal coverage. Southern Ocean GLOBEC will be operational starting in 1999.
The United States Antarctic Marine Living Resources Program (AMLR), funded through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), provides scientific information needed for U.S. policy relating to the conservation and management of the Antarctic marine living resources in the context of CCAMLR. For about ten years, the AMLR program has conducted research in the Antarctic Peninsula region during the austral summer from land-based stations and ships. These included studies of predator (seals and sea birds) and prey (krill) interactions. The oceanographic surveys are focused on krill and environment (e.g., hydrography) interactions. Previous land-based predator studies were done at Seal Island, near Elephant Island; however, the focus of the land-based AMRL research has moved to Livingston Island. Also, NOAA funds a cooperative effort with the U.S. National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs, to study penguin populations located near Palmer Station on Anvers Island. For more information on this program, please check http://swfsc.ucsd.edu:80/antarctic.html or http://swfsc.ucsd.edu:80/anta_div.html.
The Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program is funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs and is based at Palmer Station on Anvers Island. The Palmer LTER was established in Fall 1990. The program focuses on the pelagic ecosystem in Antarctic and the ecological processes that link the extent of annual sea ice to the biological dynamics of different trophic levels. An extensive field program has been undertaken as part of the Palmer LTER, which consists of sampling the nearshore environment around Palmer Station and research cruises that cover a larger area offshore over the continental shelf. Specific areas of research interest include hydrography, nutrient dynamics, phytoplankton and bacterioplankton studies, krill, and seabirds. Since 1992, a bottom-moored sediment trap array has been collecting data on the export of particulate matter on the west Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf. For more information on this program, please check http://www.nsf.gov/od/opp/.
The Antarctic Pack Ice Seals (APIS) research program has been established by the SCAR Group of Specialists on Seals to coordinate and stimulate research activities on seals in the sea ice zone of Antarctica. In particular, it aims to carry out a circumpolar survey of pack ice seal distribution and abundance during the 1998/99 austral summer. Studies relevant to understanding the environmental factors affecting distribution and abundance will be carried out concurrently with surveys. This includes collection of data about the physical environment, food availability, foraging patterns of seals, and correlations with the presence of other top marine predators. Standard survey and sampling methodologies have been developed and results from different national programs will be combined to ensure the largest possible coverage. Participants include Australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, United Kingdom, and United States. The program is due to end after 1998/99, but it is likely that the results from APIS will highlight areas of specific interest that could be taken up under the banner of GLOBEC in subsequent years. For more information on this program, please check http://nmml01.afsc.noaa.gov/apis/apis.htm.
Many nations have conducted oceanographic surveys in Antarctic Peninsula region, although with different research objectives. Since the 1994/95 field season, four nations (Germany, Japan, Korea, USA) have agreed to conduct joint oceanographic cruises in the Antarctic Peninsula region. At the start of the cruise, each nation undertakes research that contributes to the goals of its national program. However, the CCAMLR Subgroup on International Coordination requested that the member countries spend a minimum effort (1 or 2 days) in a certain area taking standardized samples. The sampling protocols for collecting the oceanographic time series data had been discussed during several CCAMLR meetings. To date, the four participating nations have conducted coordinated oceanographic surveys on one transect (5-8 Stations) near Elephant Island during the 1994/95 and 1996/97 field years. Conclusions and new findings from these data sets were obtained through workshops in 1995 (Hamburg, Germany) and 1997 (La Jolla, CA, USA). These results were reported to the CCAMLR Working Group on Environmental Monitoring and Management in reports WG-EMM-95/58 and WG-EMM-97/44, respectively.
The Ecology of the Antarctic Sea-Ice Zone (EASIZ) program is an international program supported by SCAR (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research). It is coordinated through an international steering committee, chaired by Andrew Clarke from the British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, England. The scientific aim of the EASIZ program is to improve our understanding of that part of the Southern Ocean covered by seasonal or long-term sea-ice. It thus covers a significant fraction of the area of interest to SO GLOBEC. The EASIZ program is concerned with both the water column and the benthos and those processes which link these two oceanographic zones. The EASIZ program was designed in particular around the year-round observational capacity of shore-based facilities. Such observations are important in providing winter data, and thereby a means of separating the spatial and temporal patterns which are inevitably confounded within ship-based studies. To date, most EASIZ work has concerned the benthic environment, with year-round data including near-shore oceanography and autecology of selected species. There have also been significant studies of physiological adaptation to low temperature.
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Friday, 1 August 1997 0900 Welcome/Introduction/Logistics - R. Holt/E. Hofmann 0915 Review of Previous SO GLOBEC Science Issues - E. Hofmann/M. Huntley * science report - La Jolla Workshop * science report - Norfolk, VA Workshop * International GLOBEC Science Plan 1015 Break 1045 Status of Ongoing Model Development Related to GLOBEC 1115 Update on Science Issues - V. Loeb * sea ice - krill-predator interactions 1200 Lunch 1330 Overview of Blue Whale Habitat and Prey Study in the Channel Islands - S. Reilly 1400 Continued Discussion of Science Issues - V. Loeb * generation of hypotheses 1515 Break 1545 Review of Previous SO GLOBEC Implementation Plan - U. Bathmann 1730 Adjourn Saturday, 2 August 1997 0830 International Coordination - S. Kim * International Coordination Report Area 48 * APIS * CCAMLR * CS-EASIZ * IWC * national programs * need for planning/coordination office 1000 Break 1030 Data Issues - D. Miller * data availability/management * data sharing * data archive * standardization/calibration protocols * interface with other sampling programs, e.g., CCAMLR Synoptic Survey 1200 Lunch 1400 Revision of Key Questions - J. Croxall/D. Miller 1445 Working Groups 1530 Break 1600 Outline of SO GLOBEC Program - J. Stromberg * hypotheses * time line * national programs 1730 Adjourn Sunday, 3 August 1997 0830 Presentation of Working Group Reports - S. Nicol/M. Huntley Recommendations for SO GLOBEC program * modify existing science and implementation plans 1015 Adjourn
There are large data management concerns for the SO GLOBEC project. The challenges are:
Data sharing and exchange are essential components of SO GLOBEC interdisciplinary studies. At the end of SO GLOBEC project all data have to be published on the Internet and archived in a data center of the World Data Center System in order to ensure a lasting contribution to marine science.
SO GLOBEC will use a decentralized data management and distribution system connected to a central directory system.
All investigators should be prepared to share their data and data products and should recognize the `proprietorship' of such data (`rights to first publication/authorship') acquired from other investigators.
SO GLOBEC investigators retain the primary responsibility for data quality control and assurance. Investigators should be prepared to track updates, corrections and dataset ``versions''.
Each SO GLOBEC program/project should create an inventory of data and data products.
To facilitate implementation of this strategy, members of the SO GLOBEC Steering Committee will provide the chair with nominations (including attached CVs) for suitable members to serve on the DMWG by 15 September 1997. Membership of the group shall comprise of a mix of field workers who are familiar with the likely scope of data to be collected during SO GLOBEC and those with experience in information technology/management. The DMWG should urgently commence its work and meet in the first quarter of 1998. For educational reasons, this meeting should be sited at a facility, such as Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, where the database for a similar program (i.e., SO-JGOFS) is housed.