Implementation of the SO-GLOBEC programme requires international coordination of a high order. Details of planning, logistics, and data management need to be determined and sustained for the life of the programme. Recommendations are made in this section for the necessary organisational structure and mechanisms of implementation.

6.1 Timing

6.1.2 Modelling Studies

It is recommended that modelling studies be initiated as soon as possible, i.e. 1995, following the recommendations provided in Section 4. This is particularly important for site-specific models, the results of which may influence the design of field studies.

6.1.3 Field studies

Detailed planning of field studies should begin immediately (i.e. 1995). Present planning suggests that field studies be carried out in the years 1995-2000, but such plans are only approximate. The following examples suggest where and when research vessels might be available for SO-GLOBEC time-series surveys. Among the possible participants in 1995/96 are Australia, China, Germany and UK. In 1997/98 this group could be expanded to include Chile, France, Japan, Korea and USA. Australia is presently planning a series of 5 cruises in 1999 that could focus to some degree on GLOBEC studies. Opportunities in many other nations remain undetermined at present.

It is recommended that the first multi-national field effort be focused on the summer period, and the second be focused on winter. Multiple ship support in winter is expected to require a longer lead time in planning. The formation of international research teams aboard a single vessel is a practice that is encouraged in many nations. This form of cooperation should be explored in detail during the planning process.

6.2 Management

A programme of the complexity of SO GLOBEC requires a sustained effort of planning and implementation that cannot be carried out on an ad-hoc basis. There is an immediate need to reach agreement on the precise location of Time-Series Surveys, to determine which nations are involved at various study sites, and to agree on associated logistics.

It is therefore recommended that an organizational structure be established (Fig. 3) to assure that necessary activities of international coordination and implementation be carried out. The recommended structure involves an Executive Committee, a Data Management Task Team, and a Secretariat, with the latter body acting as the international coordination office. These organizational units are described, and their terms of reference recommended in this section.

6.2.1 Executive Committee

a) Description

The Southern Ocean GLOBEC Executive Committee should consist of about six members appointed by the GLOBEC International Scientific Steering Committee (SSC), and would include those members of the SSC presently charged with the responsibility for Southern Ocean research.

b) Terms of reference

The recommended terms of reference for the Executive Committee are:

  1. Oversee Data Management Task Team: The Executive Committee would provide general direction, and would review the activities of the DMTT to ensure that its responsibilities are being carried out.
  2. Establishment of the Modelling Working Group. The Executive Committee should act immediately to seek nominations for, and appoint, a Modelling Working Group that would initiate international collaborations, and implement modelling research.
  3. Oversee Secretariat: The Executive Committee would be involved in the process of selecting staff for the Secretariat, and would assure that its activities are consistent with the implementation of the SO GLOBEC science plan.
  4. Report to the SSC. It is envisaged that the Executive Committee would meet once or twice each year with both the DMTT and staff of the Secretariat for an in-depth exchange of information. The Executive Committee may find it useful to appoint one of its members as a Liaison to the Secretariat as a means of providing sustained communication.

6.2.2 Data Management Task Team

a) Description

The DMTT should be an ad-hoc committee consisting of members appointed by the Executive Committee, which would solicit nominations from the international scientific community.

b) Terms of reference

The recommended terms of reference (see also Section 5) are to:

  1. Establish a SO GLOBEC Data Policy. The Data Policy would take into account previously established policies for similar research programmes. It would appear as a reference document written by the DMTT.
  2. Establish an international data inventory. The guidelines for the inventory would be recommended by the DMTT, and the inventory would be maintained by the Secretariat.
  3. Establish an historical data inventory. The DMTT would set forth a common format for cataloguing historical data, and would recommend a mechanism for the preparation of such catalogues.

It is recommended that the DMTT be formed as soon as possible so that its responsibilities could be fulfilled in advance of field research programmes.

6.2.3 Modelling Working Group

a) Description

The MWG should be a standing committee consisting of members appointed by the Executive Committee, which would solicit nominations from the international scientific community.

b) Terms of reference

The recommended terms of reference for the MWG are to:

  1. Initiate development of the SO GLOBEC Conceptual Model. The basic components of the Conceptual Model should be identified. A plan should be agreed upon for development of (a) model components and (b) actual modules.
  2. Identify relevant data sets for site-specific models. There is an urgent need to initiate site-specific models prior to field research activities.
  3. Identify ongoing and planned modelling research in the international scientific community that (a) directly contributes, and (b) indirectly contributes to SO GLOBEC modelling needs.
  4. Submit a written report that summarises the present status and future plans of the SO GLOBEC modelling activities on an international scale, with particular emphasis on identifying collaborative research.

It is recommended that the MWG be formed immediately so that its activities could begin well in advance of field research programmes. Model output is anticipated to be crucial in the final design of field programmes. The capability for field studies to employ data assimilation should be addressed.

6.2.4 Secretariat

a) Description

It is recommended that the Southern Ocean GLOBEC Secretariat be established at a location that provides convenient access to scientists from the many nations involved in this programme, preferably at a major polar or oceanographic research institution. It is further recommended that the Secretariat be staffed by a scientist holding a Ph.D. and having experience in Antarctic research, and that clerical assistance be provided. The Secretariat would be funded by voluntary contributions from nations involved in SO GLOBEC, for a period of approximately five years.

b) Terms of reference

The principal purpose of the Secretariat would be to carry out the detailed activities involved in implementing the SO GLOBEC research programme. The Secretariat's recommended terms of reference are to:

  1. Organise and host regional planning meetings. These international meetings (Section 6.3) will provide the details for implementing field programmes in each of the three regions: Antarctic Peninsula, eastern Weddell Sea, and Indian Ocean.
  2. Ensure comparability between regional studies. As the common element in the final design of the field programmes, the Secretariat would actively communicate between the three different programmes to ensure that fundamental aspects of each programme are sufficiently similar to allow comparison (e.g. population census techniques, sampling frequency, etc.).
  3. Act as a repository for data catalogues. Although it would be the responsibility of the Data Management Task Team to establish guidelines for the preparation of data inventory catalogues, and the responsibility of individual nations to prepare them, the Secretariat would maintain them.
  4. Coordinate international modelling activities. The Secretariat would organise and officially host meetings of the Modelling Working Group, and disseminate relevant information to the international community.
  5. Disseminate information. It should be the responsibility of the Secretariat to ensure that all participating nations are aware of one another's operational and scientific information (e.g. data policy, modelling plans, cruise plans, data reports). It would be the responsibility of individual nations and field programmes to provide such data to the Secretariat, and the responsibility of the Secretariat to ensure that it is distributed in a timely manner.
  6. Organise workshops and symposia. The Secretariat would arrange such meetings as might be necessary for the exchange of scientific information resulting from SO GLOBEC research activities.

It is strongly recommended that the Secretariat be established early in 1995, so as to allow sufficient time for planning prior to intensive field research activities, anticipated to begin in 1997.

6.3 Regional Planning Meetings

General areas of operation have been identified, but specific Time-Series Survey sites and Process Studies remain to be chosen. It is recommended that representatives of nations interested in a specific area meet to agree upon a detailed cruise plan and associated activities for that area. This meeting would include participants in all three areas of operation, so that consistency could be achieved in survey design. The SO GLOBEC Secretariat would organise and host such meetings. Meetings would be held for 3-4 days at a location of mutual convenience to participants.

The goals of the regional planning meetings would be as follows:

  1. Select target species. The choice of target species may depend on the region of interest, and may also affect the nature of Process Studies.
  2. Select a location for the Time-Series Survey. The selection process should follow the criteria set forth in Section 4.2.1. and 4.2.3. Site selection may be influenced by the choice of target species and logistic capabilities.
  3. Determine which vessels will participate and when. Ensure that each study is maintained for a period of at least 6 months. If possible, winter and summer studies could be joined end-to-end to provide a 12-month field programme.
  4. Agree on standard methodologies. Each Time-Series Survey and associated Process Studies are likely to involve at least three ships from three different nations. It is imperative that methods be standardised to allow for comparison both within and among regional study sites. In this context, it would be useful to consult published handbooks on methodology, e.g. by CCAMLR.
  5. Coordinate with other international programmes. Wherever possible, it would be desirable to coordinate logistics with compatible international programmes (please see Section 7).
  6. Submit a written plan. Each participating nation would submit a written cruise plan to the SO GLOBEC Secretariat, providing the details regarding target species, location and timing of Time-Series Surveys, participating vessels, methodology to be employed, and relation to other national and international programmes. Process Studies need to be defined with respect to target species, specific projects, cruises and measurements. Written plans are needed to coordinate within and among regional studies.

The importance of the regional planning meetings cannot be overemphasised. The key scientific questions cannot be addressed without a clear, long term plan. For most nations, such a plan is a necessary precursor to participation in SO GLOBEC.