It would be beneficial for SO GLOBEC to establish close contacts and, where possible, coordinated research activities, with international programmes that share common or complementary interests. Limitations in material and personnel resources will necessitate such cooperation. This section describes relevant programmes and suggests possible areas of mutual interest.

7.1 Antarctic Pack Ice Seals (APIS)

a) Description

Antarctic Pack Ice Seals Program (APIS) is an international research programme coordinated by the SCAR Group of specialists on seals. Recognising their huge biomass (80% of the world's seal population) and their significant functional role in the Southern Ocean ecosystems as sensitive indicators of ecosystem dynamics and environmental variability, the group developed the programme with focus to assess the population abundance and distribution of the pack ice seals and to understand the process of energy and carbon flux through their foraging and respiration within the Antarctic ecosystem. The programme is composed of three field experiments:

  1. Internationally coordinated multiship survey in 1998/1999 season to conduct circumpolar studies for identification of distribution and abundance including process type of study,
  2. Regional studies coordinated by bi- or tri-lateral nations during 1995/1996 - 1999/2000 season; and
  3. Sub-regional studies by single nations during 1995/1996 - 1999/2000 seasons.

The programme will contribute to many programmes coordinated by such scientific organisations as SCAR, SCOR, CCAMLR, CCAS and IOC.

b) Coordination with SO-GLOBEC

Collaboration with Southern Ocean GLOBEC is particularly important for APIS, because both programmes share the same goals in some research areas. Furthermore, many of the planned studies on seals would be greatly enhanced by information on lower trophic levels that will be studied by GLOBEC as a matter of course. Research coordination and information exchange are needed between the two programmes.

7.2 Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)

a) Description

CCAMLR operates by mandate of international treaty to manage the marine living resources of the Southern Ocean. Its stated approach is to manage species in an ecosystem context, an approach that is unique in the field of marine resource management. This approach has meant that programmes have been established to monitor the status of harvested resources and key dependent species. Monitoring activities are directed to species which are or have been exploited commercially, such as krill and fish and to a number of selected krill-dependent key predators including 4 species of pygoscelid penguins, Antarctic and cape petrel, black-browed albatross, Antarctic fur seal and crabeater seal. Monitoring activities are focussed on the areas of commercial harvesting, three Integrated Study Regions (South Georgia, Antarctic Peninsula and Prydz Bay) and a network of monitoring sites.

b) Coordination with SO GLOBEC

The immediate goal of the GLOBEC programme is to improve our understanding of the relationship between physical forcing and population dynamics so that we can better predict the effects of climatic change on marine populations. The ultimate goal of the GLOBEC programme is to feed such improved understanding into the design of long term monitoring programmes so that effects of climate change can be better predicted. CCAMLR is an organisation which stands to benefit directly from the results of GLOBEC through the provision of advice on the design of long term monitoring studies on global climate change. It is critical, therefore, that communication and coordination be established.

7.3 Coastal and Shelf Ecology of the Antarctic Sea-Ice Zone (CS-EASIZ)

a) Description

The SCAR programme for marine research in the coastal and shelf ecosystem of Antarctica was developed by the SCAR Group of Specialists on Southern Ocean Ecology at workshops in Trondheim, Cambridge, Bremerhaven and Padua.

The aim of the CS-EASIZ programme is "to improve our understanding of the structure and dynamics of the Antarctic coastal and shelf marine ecosystem, the most complex and productive in Antarctica, and likely the most sensitive to global environmental change. Particular attention will be paid to those features that make the biology of this ice-dominated ecosystem so distinctive and to understanding seasonal, inter-annual and long-term changes."

Science and implementation plans spanning a 10 year period have been developed which SCAR will be invited to approve as a major biological contribution concomitant with, and complementary to its planned contribution to IGBP via GLOCHANT.

b) Coordination with SO GLOBEC

Many research goals are shared by CS-EASIZ and SO GLOBEC. It is recommended that communication be maintained between the programmes, with a view to possible coordination pending approval by both SCAR and IGBP.

7.4 GLObal CHange and the ANTarctic (GLOCHANT)

a) Description

This programme stems from the interest by SCAR in global change research to establish a steering committee for the IGBP. The culmination of the steering committee's work was the publication in 1992 of an implementation plan for a regional research plan for global change research in Antarctica. The first meeting of the Group of Specialists on Global Change in Antarctica was held in February 1993.

It was proposed that there be five implementation groups of GLOCHANT:-

  1. Sea Ice
  2. Global paleoenvironmental records from the Antarctic ice sheet and marine and land sediments
  3. Antarctic mass balance and sea level
  4. Trace gases, aerosol particles and UV radiation in the Antarctic atmosphere
  5. Biogeochemical cycles together with a data coordination group and a numerical modelling coordination group.

It is proposed that a secretariat of GLOCHANT, with a full-time project coordinator, be established.

b) Coordination with SO GLOBEC

Liaison with other international programmes, including SO-GLOBEC, has been discussed.

7.5 Joint Global Ocean FHlux Study (JGOFS)

a) Description

This programme is aimed at quantifying the role of biological processes in oceanic carbon fluxes and exchange of carbon dioxide between ocean and atmosphere. In the Southern Ocean, Phase I JGOFS field studies have recently been completed, and Phase II is anticipated to be underway by 1996. There is considerable interest in assessing the role of mesoscale physical dynamics on distributions and dynamics of dissolved carbon dioxide and relevant biological processes, particularly since such processes operate over relatively long time scales in the Southern Ocean. Phase II JGOFS studies may continue until 2000.

b) Coordination with SO GLOBEC

The interest in mesoscale physical processes during Phase II SO JGOFS suggests an operational aspect that would be strongly shared with SO GLOBEC. The programmes further complement one another with respect to the study of basic processes. SO GLOBEC could benefit from the detailed attention given to processes of primary production (i.e. potential zooplankton food) by SO JGOFS. Conversely, GLOBEC studies on distribution, population dynamics and physiological activity of zooplankton may shed more light on the processes of grazing and fecal production that are of interest to JGOFS. Communication should be maintained between both programmes, and the potential for fully coordinated research cruises should be explored.