8.1 National Programmes
Only a selection of national programmes is described here. Omission of a given nation from this section, or omission of any aspect of a given nation's programme, is not intentional. The purpose of this section is to provide examples of representative national programmes.
Changes in funding of Australia's Antarctic programme have resulted in the use of a single ship, the Aurora Australis, with which to resupply stations and to undertake marine research. It is planned that the Aurora Australis will be involved in programmes which contribute to SO-GLOBEC objectives over the next five years in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean. These include a krill survey in the Davis-Casey region in January-February 1996, a polynya study off Mawson in August-September 1998, predator/prey studies off Mawson in January 1999 and a "Four-seasons" study in August and November 1999, and February and May-June 2000. It is also anticipated that seal surveys will be conducted in October 1995, 96 and 97. There are ongoing predator/prey investigations at Mawson.
There has been a history of the involvement of the international Antarctic scientific community in Australia's Antarctic programme. It is intended that such collaboration continue. Proposals for all scientific programmes are peer reviewed and assessed. Researchers interested in participating in ANARE should contact Steve Nicol or Harvey Marchant.
The Chilean Antarctic Institute, together with researchers from different universities, elaborated during 1994 a five year scientific plan for Antarctic science. Regarding marine sciences
The Chilean Antarctic Institute, together with researchers from different universities, elaborated during 1994 a five year scientific plan for Antarctic science. Regarding marine sciences this plan will put special emphasis on the following:
In addition, the Instituto Nacional Antartico de Chile (INACH) started a plan for year-round plankton studies near the South Shetland Islands. It is expected that the development of this plan will produce information valuable for SO-GLOBEC. At the same time INACH has initiated the implementation of a scientific database.
Chile operates numerous shore bases in the Antarctic Peninsula region, some of which would be particularly suitable for GLOBEC shore based studies and logistic support. These include Frei Base, which has an airfield on King George Island; Carvajal Base on Adelaide Island; and Arturo Pratt Base on Roberts Island, which will soon be upgraded.
China is now in the final stages of preparing its 5-year research plan for the period 1996-2000. The focus of the national programme to date has been primarily on krill ecology. A possible focus of future research will involve studies of interactions between the atmosphere, sea-ice, ocean and biosphere in the Prydz Bay area.
China's logistics and research vessel, the Jidi, after a service for 7 years, was retired in 1993. The Snow Dragon, a new ice-breaker purchased from the Ukraine recently, came into operation during the 1994/95 season. Routine annual cruises of 20-30 days duration to Prydz Bay, where Zhongshan Base is located, will be conducted from now on. Cruises to Great Wall Base on King George Island are planned every three years. The reconstruction of Snow Dragon is expected to be completed in 1995.
France presently contributes to the Southern Ocean JGOFS effort through its ANTARES programme. The next ANTARES cruise, using the research vessel Marion Dufresne, will take place in the southern Indian Ocean sector in November-December 1995, during austral spring. An ANTARES 4 cruise is currently planned for 1996 to study the frontal zones in the vicinity and south of Kerguelen Island.
Shore-based studies are focussed in the Kerguelen area. During the period 1995-98 two programmes will study the infuence of top predators on plankton communities on the coastal shelf of Kerguelen. These programmes are considering the interactions between birds and zooplankton on the one hand, and birds-fish-zooplankton on the other. The approach involves a multidisciplinary study with seasonal surveys undertaken aboard the Kerguelen 25-m oceanographic vessel, La Curieuse.
Penguin foraging studies will be undertaken from the Dumont d'Urville Base in the Pacific Sector.
A number of German scientists are involved with GLOBEC-relevant research themes, ranging from meso-scale physics, zooplankton and krill distribution and life cycles to ecology and physiology of birds and seals. These studies have been carried out from the ice-breaking RV Polarstern but also from shore-based stations in the Peninsula region and the southern Weddell Sea. Much biological work has been carried out on multidisciplinary cruises dedicated to geological or oceanographical programmes. Exceptions have been the series of BIOMASS cruises conducted along the Peninsula until about 1986, the EPOS cruises dedicated to plankton and benthos ecology in 1988/89 and the SO JGOFS cruise carried out in 1992. Scientists from other European countries, in particular the Netherlands, France and Belgium, have contributed significantly to the programmes carried out on the latter cruises.
With the establishment of a land base (Dallmann Station) adjacent to Jubany Base on King George Island in 1993 EASIZ-oriented work is now concentrated on one site. Surveys of krill and predators in the Peninsula area will be carried out from RV Polarstern within the CCAMLR programme.
Efforts are underway to organise GLOBEC dedicated research cruises with RV Polarstern to the eastern Weddell Sea and in the Peninsula region. Meso-scale hydrography and plankton distribution will be mapped along a productive front using an undulating vehicle during a cruise in December/January 1995/96 in the Eastern Weddell Sea. This cruise is dedicated primarily to JGOFS goals but there is a GLOBEC component inasmuch as zooplankton, bird and seal distributions will also be surveyed. It is hoped that this cruise will provide necessary background information for GLOBEC-dedicated cruises planned for 1997/98. Participation by scientists with expertise in new methodology for Time-Series Surveys and zooplankton behaviour studies is welcomed on the planned GLOBEC cruises with RV Polarstern.
Those aspects of the Japanese Southern Ocean programme of potential interest to SO-GLOBEC involve four ships and one field station. The Hakuho-Maru, operated by the Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, will focus its studies in the ice edge region around 140o E during the 1994/95 field season. Its primary research objectives include primary and secondary productivity in relation to biogeochemical cycles, biological population structures in the deep sea, and physical oceanographic studies with emphasis on polynyas.
The Kaiyo-Maru, operated by the Far Seas Research Laboratory of the Fisheries Agency, is scheduled to conduct cruises in the Scotia Sea region, with studies planned for 1994/95 and 1997/98. The objectives of the first study are on the transport of krill in relation to physical forcing; time-series observations of krill swarming with emphasis on reproductive condition; and predator-prey interactions between fur seals, penguins, and krill.
Both the Unitaka-Maru (Tokyo University of Fisheries) and the Shirase (JARE) will undertake operations in the Indian Ocean sector. The former vessel is planned to work in the Prydz Bay area during both 1995/96 and 1997/98 field seasons, with emphasis given to both SO-JGOFS and SO GLOBEC. The Shirase makes annual cruises through the Indian Ocean region from 30 degrees to 150 degrees E, only during summer, to and from Syowa Station in Lutzow-Holm Bay. It would also be available for both SO JGOFS and SO GLOBEC field research activities.
Syowa Station is operated only as a summer base. Emphasis of research is currently on a census of Adelie penguins in Lutzow-Holm Bay; foraging and breeding success during the breeding season; and winter foraging in relation to ice conditions.
There are currently two directions in Korea's Antarctic biological research: land-based research and oceanic surveys. Nearshore research projects on plankton, benthic community ecology, fish biology and penguin life cycles have been conducted at the Korean overwintering station on King George Island since 1988. These research efforts, formerly separate, will be reviewed and integrated in the framework of coastal process studies, which aims to delineate energy flow in coastal yone ecosystems.
With respect to biological oceanographic surveys, Korean scientists have accumulated their experience on plankton and physical oceanographic surveys of the Bransfield Strait, Gerlache Strait, and western Weddell Sea areas since the 1988/89 field season. Since the 1993/94 austral summer, special research emphasis has been placed on microbial processes in the sea-ice zone of the western Weddell Sea, with a focus on primary productivity and the vertical distribution of zooplankton and ichthyoplankton. The intensive bloom phenomena in this region have led to strong interest that process-oriented surveys be continued for some years to come.
8.1.8 United Kingdom
The British Antarctic Survey runs a comprehensive Antarctic Marine Life Science Programme, working towards the understanding of the Structure and Dynamics of the Southern Ocean Ecosystem. The work is divided into 3 disciplines: Pelagic Ecosystem Studies (PES), Higher Predator Studies (HPS) and Ecological and Physiological Adaptions (EPA).
126.96.36.199 Pelagic Ecosystem Studies (PES)
PES contains open-ocean biological studies conducted from the RRS James Clark Ross. Within PES, 3 research groups (Plankton Dynamics, Resources, Ecosystem Analysis) undertake a scale-based approach to understanding the 'role of spatial and temporal variability in the Southern Ocean ecosystem'. Three scales have been selected for study. Small scale processes (over scales of metres to kilometres; minutes to days) include aspects of physiology and behaviour using standard stations, time series and micro-scale study sites. Medium scale studies (km's to 100's km; days to months) cover aspects of distribution, community structure and interactions with larger organisms and key hydrodynamic processes involving shelf and frontal features and eddies. Finally, large scale processes (100's to 1000's km; months - years -decades) cover ocean basin and seasonal to interannual effects.
The PES programme study area at present centres on South Georgia and works out from there to the Scotia Sea area. The large scale studies encompass transects connecting South Georgia, the South Orkneys, the Peninsula and the Falkland Islands. However, the effect of relocating the EPA studies to Rothera Base (Adelaide Island) is still to be finalised.
The PES programme shares the use of the ice-strengthened RRS James Clark Ross with marine geophysics, logistics and external cruises. At present PES cruises are operated on the basis of major (60 day) and minor (30 day) years. A major cruise has just been completed this season and the next major marine cruise is expected to be 60 days of science time in 1995/96. It is likely that this cruise will contain both process studies and distributional studies over both the medium and large scale. The PES programme has a definite interest in a winter cruise but the timing of such a cruise in not clear at present.
The RRS James Clark Ross has accommodation for 25-30 scientists, spaces for collaborating scientists from other institutes/countries have been available in the past and are likely to be available in the future.
188.8.131.52 Higher Predator Studies (HPS)
HPS covers research on sea birds and seals and provides a means of monitoring long term changes. The field science programme is operated year round from the Bird Island base at the western tip of South Georgia.
184.108.40.206 Ecological and Physiological Adaptions
EPA covers the biology of the nearshore environment; because it is land based it is able to provide year round coverage of behavioural and physiological processes that cannot be studied from a ship. Traditionally this work has been carried out at Signy base (South Orkney Islands) but within the next couple of years it will be transferred to Rothera base (Marguerite Bay).
8.1.9 United States
Antarctic marine research activities in the United States presently involve three principal components: SO GLOBEC, the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) programme, and the Antarctic Marine Living Resources (AMLR) programme.
220.127.116.11 SO GLOBEC
The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), Office of Polar Programs is planning a Southern Ocean GLOBEC initiative in 1997-98 and 1998-99. It is anticipated that a request for proposals for this initiative will be issued about one and one-half years prior to the field studies. The scope and participants in this activity will be determined through the usual proposal submission and review procedures that are used by the U.S. NSF. Prior to a field initiative, the U.S. NSF Office of Polar Programs and Division of Ocean Sciences intends to issue an announcement of opportunity for modelling studies directed at Southern Ocean issues that are relevant to the objectives of both the SO GLOBEC and SO JGOFS programmes. It is anticipated that this announcement will be available in late 1994. The intent is that models will be developed that can be used to direct and guide the implementation of field programmes in the Antarctic.
18.104.22.168 Antarctic Marine Living Resources
This programme, funded through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), provides scientific information needed for U.S. policy relating to the conservation and management of the Antarctic marine living resources in the context of CCAMLR. For the last ten years the programme has conducted research during austral summer at a land-based station and from a ship (R/V Surveyor) around Elephant Island in the Antarctic Peninsula region. These studies include investigations of predator (seals and sea birds) and prey (krill) interactions. Presently, oceanographic surveys are focussed on krill and hydrography A summer camp is operated at Seal Island, near Elephant Island, to study seals and sea birds. NOAA also funds a cooperative effort with the U.S. NSF, Office of Polar Programs, to study penguin populations that occur near Palmer Station.
22.214.171.124 Long Term Ecological Research (LTER)
This programme, funded by the U.S. NSF Office of Polar Programs, is relevant to the objectives of SO-GLOBEC. It is based at Palmer Station (Anvers Island). This programme was established in Fall 1990 and will continue through 1996, with the possibility of funding for an additional four years. The Palmer LTER focuses on the pelagic ecosystem in Antarctica and the ecological processes that link the extent of annual pack ice to the biological dynamics of different trophic levels. The LTER consists of six components that focus on primary production and bio-optical modelling of primary production; phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics; distribution, abundance and ecological physiology of secondary producers, in particular Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba); sea bird population dynamics and reproductive ecology; dissolved organic carbon and microbial processes; and hydrography, coastal circulation and physical-biological modelling. An extensive field programme has been undertaken as part of the Palmer LTER, which consists of nearshore sampling in the region around Palmer Station, an annual research cruise that covers a region of about 400 by 200 km and an occasional longer duration process cruise that covers a larger area. The data sets from the Palmer LTER will provide a basis for developing SO-GLOBEC programmes.
Bleck, R. and D. Boudra, 1986. Wind-driven spinup in eddy resolving ocean models formulated in isopycnic and isobaric coordinates. J. Geophys. Res., 91, 7611-7621.
Blumberg, A. F. and G. L. Mellor, 1987. A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model. Three Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, N. S. Heaps, ed. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., USA. 208pp.
Brasseur, P. and J.C.J. Nihoul, eds, 1994, Data assimilation: tools for modelling the ocean in a global change perspective, Vol. 19, NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series I, Springer for Science, Ijmuiden, Netherlands, 253 pp.
Capella, J.E., L.B. Quetin, E.E. Hofmann and R.M. Ross, 1992, Models of the early life history of Euphausia superba-Part II. Lagrangian calculations. Deep-Sea Research, 39, 1201-1220.
Cox, M. D., 1984. A primitve equation three-dimensional model of the ocean. Tech. Rep. 1, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, NOAA, Princeton, USA. 250pp.
Haidvogel, D.B., J.L. Wilkin, and R. Young, 1991, A semi-spectral primitive equation circulation model using vertical sigma and orthogonal curvilinear horizontal coordinates. J. Comput. Phys., 94, 151-185.
Hofmann, E.E., J.E. Capella, R.M. Ross and L.B. Quetin, 1992, Models of the early life history of Euphausia superba-Part I. Time and temperature dependence during the descent-ascent cycle. Deep-Sea Research, 39, 1177-1200.
Huntley, M.E., M.D.G. Lopez and M. Zhou, 1994, Calanoides acutus in Gerlache Strait, Antarctica II. Solving an inverse problem in population dynamics. Deep-Sea Research II, 41, 209-227.
Lawson, L.M., Y.H. Spitz, E.E. Hofmann, and R.B. Long, 1994, A data assimilation technique applied to a predator-prey model. Bull. Math. Biol, in press.
Lemke, P., W.B. Owens and W. D. Hibler, III, A coupled sea ice-mixed layer-pycnocline model for the Weddell Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 9513-9525, 1990.
Oberhuber, J. M., 1986. About some numerical methods used in an ocean general circulation model with isopycnic coordinates. Advanced Physical Oceanographic Numerical Modelling, J. J. O'Brien, ed. D. Reidel Pub. Co.,Dordrecht, Germany. p. 511-522.
Song, Y. and D. Haidvogel, 1994. A semi-implicit ocean circulation model using a generalized topography-following coordinate system. J. Comp. Phys., 115, 228-244.
The FRAM Group, 1991, An eddy-resolving model of the Southern Ocean, EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 72, 169 and 174-175.
8.3 Participants and Contributors
Ulrich Bathmann Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research Postfach 120161 27515 Bremerhaven GERMANY email: firstname.lastname@example.org fax: +49-471-4831.425 John Bengston* National Marine Mammal Laboratory NOAA/NMFS 7600 Sand Point Way, NE Seattle, WA, 98115-0070 USA Dan Costa* Office of Naval Research Code 3411 800 N. Quincy St. Arlington, VA 22217 USA fax: +1-703-696 1212 John Croxall* British Antarctic Survey (BAS) High Cross, Madingley Road Cambridge CB3 OET, UK fax: +44-223-62616 Inigo Everson British Antarctic Survey (BAS) High Cross, Madingley Road Cambridge CB3 OET, UK fax: +44-223-62616 Eileen E. Hofmann Center for Coastal Phys. Oceanogr. Crittenton Hall Old Dominion University Norfolk, VA 23529 USA e-mail: email@example.com fax: +1-804-683-5550 Rennie Holt NOAA/Southwest Fisheries Science Center P.O. Box 271 La Jolla, CA 92038 USA email: firstname.lastname@example.org fax: +1-619-546 7003 *Contributed but did not attend the Bremerhaven meeting: Mark E. Huntley Marine Biology Research Division, 0202 Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093 USA email: email@example.com fax: +1-808-923-4719 Suam Kim Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute Ansan, PO Box 29 Seoul, 425-600 KOREA fax: +82-2-345-410 4060 John Klinck Center for Coastal Phys. Oceanogr. Crittenton Hall Old Dominion University Norfolk, VA 23529 USA email: firstname.lastname@example.org fax: +1-804-683-5550 Harvey J. Marchant Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway Kingston, Tasmania 7050 AUSTRALIA email: email@example.com fax: 0061-02-323 351 Victor Marin Depto. de Cs. Ecologicas Facultad Ciencias Universidad de Chile Casilla 653 Santiago, CHILE, email: firstname.lastname@example.org fax: +56-2-272 7363 Patrick Mayzaud LOBE - OBSERVATOIRE Oceanologique BP 28 06230 Villefranche sur Mer FRANCE email: email@example.com fax: +33-93-763.848 Yasuhiko Naito National Institute of Polar Research 9-10 Kaga 1-chome Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173 JAPAN email: firstname.lastname@example.org fax: 813 3962 2599/5743 Victor Smetacek Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research Postfach 120161 27515 Bremerhaven Germany email: email@example.com fax: +49-471-4831.440/439 Vasily A. Spiridonov Zoological Museum of Moscow State University MSU Herzen Street 6 Moscow, 103009 RUSSIA fax: +7 095-264 9187 Jarl-Ove Stromberg Kristineberg Marine Biological Station Kristineberg 2130 S-45034 Fiskebackskil SWEDEN email: firstname.lastname@example.org fax: +46-523-18503 Wang Rong Institute of Oceanology Academia Sinica 7 Nan-Hai Road QingDao Shan Dong P.R. CHINA fax: +86-532-287 9235 Jon Watkins British Antarctic Survey (BAS) High Cross, Madingley Road Cambridge CB3 OET, UK fax: +44-223-62616