This section provides a summary of the recommendations from the International GLOBEC Southern Ocean Planning Meeting. The working group reports from which these recommendations have been extracted are presented in their entirety in Section 4.
3.1 Population Dynamics and Physical Variability
The key questions for a zooplankton component of a Southern Ocean GLOBEC
programme should focus on:
These questions are designed to provide a basis from which to develop elements of research programmes and to select core study sites.
Key zooplankton species should represent a diversity of life-history strategies and include species that are of importance to higher predators. The key zooplankton species selected for a Southern Ocean GLOBEC programme are: Euphausia superba, Calanoides acutus, and Metridia gerlachei. However, the scientific basis of a Southern Ocean GLOBEC programme should be broad enough to accommodate research on other zooplankton species as needed. For example, Salpa thompsoni could be an important species since it tends to dominate in years and/or locations when Euphausia superba is scarce.
3.1.2 Top Predators
The key questions for a top predator component of a Southern Ocean GLOBEC programme should focus on:
These questions are intended to provide a framework for the development of field and laboratory research and numerical modelling initiatives as related to a Southern Ocean GLOBEC top predator research programme.
Target species for a predator programme were selected in terms of their degree of association with ice cover or the ice edge, their dependence on krill, availability of historical data and feasibility of study. Given these criteria, the primary target species are Crabeater seals, Adelie penguins, Snow petrels, Antarctic petrels, fish, and squid. However, it was recognized that other target species may be appropriate in some regions of the Antarctic, such as areas not strongly influenced by pack ice.
3.1.3 Zooplankton/Top Predators
The above questions for zooplankton and top predators require that a Southern Ocean GLOBEC programme study the population dynamics of a variety of organisms that range from small copepods to large seals. This presents severe difficulties in programme design and implementation since the key organisms operate over a wide range of space and time scales. The major components required for a joint zooplankton/top predator study include time-series surveys, process surveys, process studies, laboratory experimental studies and modelling. In terms of joint studies of zooplankton and top predators, it was recommended to implement:
The working group provided detailed interaction matrices of the types of sampling approaches that are needed to address the questions posed by the zooplankton and top predator working groups.
3.2 Data Needs
The Historical Data and Data Management working group noted that
a large body of historical data exist for the Antarctic that are relevant
to the objectives of GLOBEC and are important in planning of GLOBEC
activities. It is important to describe the types of data that exist,
where they are located and how to access or obtain them. It was
also recognized that biological data are collected in a variety of
formats, with different devices and different sampling techniques. Thus, the
working group recommended that:
Modelling is recognized as an important component of all GLOBEC programmes. Several of the key questions identified for Southern Ocean GLOBEC require modelling approaches or input from model simulations. It was suggested that many of these questions be examined within the context of a conceptual model that would be developed for the Antarctic prior to the development of a field programme. The conceptual model would also provide a framework for the field programme. There are also unique features of the Antarctic ecosystem (e.g. sea-ice, krill swarming) that need to be included in models. The primary recommendations from the working group are that:
3.4 Sampling and Observations Systems
The working group reviewed the availability of satellite remote sensing and non-satellite remote sensing capabilities for the Southern Ocean. The working group also noted the technologies that need development or enhancement for application to sampling Southern Ocean zooplankton and top predator populations. Recommendations were made for the:
3.5 International Connections
The Meeting stressed the need for close contacts with several international organizations and programmes in order to gain as much as possible from cooperation and to avoid duplication of work. Among organizations, SCAR and CCAMLR and their subgroups were mentioned in particular and among programs, WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment) and JGOFS (Joint Global Ocean Flux Study) were mentioned as being of particular importance to GLOBEC.
3.6 Future Activities
The Meeting participants decided to hold a second meeting of the International GLOBEC Southern Ocean Planning Group, preferably in May 1994. One possible meeting place could be Cambridge, United Kingdom. The main purpose of the next meeting will be to write an implementation plan for Southern Ocean GLOBEC.