Source Material for Figures

Figure 7.01: Large and small patches of deforestation. Extracted from an animated image time series. Tropical Rainforest Information Center, Michigan State University.
Figure 7.02: Fragmented forests and conversion of riparian ecosystem to agriculture. Obtained from website. SPOT 4 demonstration imagery.

Figure 7.03: Change detection by overlay of classified imagery. Original graphic by Thomas C. Hart.

Suggested Reading

Cohen, W. B. W. D. O. F. M. (1996), Two decades of carbon flux from forests of the Pacific Northwest, Bioscience 46(11):836-848.

Davis, M. (1989), Lags in vegetation response to greenhouse warming, Climate Change 15:75-82.

Davis, M. B. and D. B. Botkin (1985), Sensitivity of cool-temperate forests and their fossil pollen record to rapid temperature change, Quaternary Research 23:327-340.

Goward, S. N. and S. D. Prince (1995), Transient effects of climate on vegetation dynamics: satellite observations, Journal of Biogeography 22:549-563.

Hall, F. G., D. B. Botkin, D. E. Strebel, K. D. Woods and S. J. Goetz (1991), Large scale patterns of forest succession as determined by remote sensing, Ecology 72(2):628-640.

Harmon, M. E., W. K. Ferrel and J. F. Franklin (1990), Effects of carbon storage of conversion of old-growth forests to young forest, Science 247.

Lambin, E. F. and S. A. H. (1994), Indicators of land-cover change for change-vector analysis in multitemporal space at coarse spatial scales, International Journal of Remote Sensing 15(10):2099.

Lovejoy, T. E., J. M. Rankin, R. O. Bierrgaard, K. S. Brown, L. H. Emmons and M. E. Van der Voort (1984), Ecosystem decay of Amazon forest remnants. Extinctions. (M. H. Nitecki, Ed.), Chicago, University of Chicago Press, pp. 295-325.

Myneni, R. B., C. D. Keeling and R. R. Nemani (1997), Increased plant growth in the northern high latitudes from 1981 to 1991, Nature 386(6626): 698.

Nemani, R. R. and S. W. Running (1995), Satellite monitoring of global land cover changes and their impact on climate, Climate Change 31:395-413.

Robinson, G. R., R. D. Holt, M. S. Gaines, S. P. Hamburg, M. L. Johnson, H. S. Fitch and E. A. Martinko (1992), Diverse and contrasting effects of habitat fragmentation, Science 257:524-526.

Skole, D. and C. J. Tucker (1993), Tropical deforestation and habitat fragmentation in the Amazon: satellite data from 1978 to 1988, Science 260:1905-1910.

Solomon, A. M. and H. H. Shugart (1993), Vegetation Dynamics and Global Change, New York, Chapman & Hall.

Tucker, C. J., H. E. Dregne and W. W. Newcomb (1991), Expansion and Contraction of the Saharan Desert from 1980 to 1990, Science 253 (19 July 1991):299-301.


Problems of land cover change detection:
A land cover change monitoring program:
GIMMS (Global Inventory, Mapping and Monitoring System):
NASA Landsat Pathfinder Humid Tropical Deforestation Project:
Remote sensing of land cover change:
The Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP):
University of Maryland Laboratory for Global Remote Sensing Studies:
NASA Land Cover / Land Use Change (LCLUC) Program:
Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) network: