Minutes of the Third U.S. Southern Ocean GLOBEC Science Investigator Meeting


10-12 December 2001

Monday Minutes 

The Third U.S. Southern Ocean GLOBEC (SO GLOBEC) Science Investigator Meeting started with a welcome from Eileen Hofmann, which was followed by introductions of the meeting attendees and a welcome from Polly Penhale and Bernie Lettau from the NSF Office of Polar Programs.

Hofmann went over the agenda for the meeting and asked for corrections or additions (none were provided). Next Hofmann went over a timeline of program activities and showed a table of the SO cruises that have been completed and remain to be done. She noted that the cruise track from the German SO GLOBEC cruise overlaps parts of the cruise track and that a report from the German cruise is posted on the Alfred Wegener web site .

Program activities since the 2001 Science Investigator meeting were next reviewed. The British Antarctic vessel, the R/V James Clark Ross did an extensive multibeam bathymetric survey in the Marguerite Bay region in February 2001. The bathymetric data from this cruise have been made available to SO GLOBEC and the SeaBeam data collected during the British cruise have been provided to SO GLOBEC. Bob Beardsley from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is leading the effort to merge these data sets to obtain an updated bathymetric map of the SO GLOBEC study region. The British Antarctic Survey will have another cruise in the Marguerite Bay region in early 2002 and it is anticipated that these data will also be part of the larger data base. Bob Beardsley is checking into the availability of the German bathymetry data as well as bathymetry data from previous cruises to the region.

The SO GLOBEC Planning Office has received and published cruise reports from the five cruises in 2001. The reports are available in paper and in electronic form on the SO GLOBEC web site.

The SO GLOBEC session at the 2002 Ocean Sciences Meeting received 50 abstracts and had a good international response. The abstracts were organized into two oral sessions and one poster session. Everyone was encouraged to check the AGU web site for additional information about the sessions and the meeting.

A SO GLOBEC poster has been prepared and is available to anyone who wants one. The poster has been presented at the Ocean Odyssey Meeting in Argentina in October 2001 by Dan Costa and at the iAnZone and Ross Sea Conference in Italy in October 2001 by John Klinck. The poster will also be presented at the Ocean Sciences Meeting and possibly at the European Geophysical Society Meeting scheduled for April 2002 in France. A similar poster will be made for the second field season.

Dates for the 2002 SO GLOBEC process and survey cruises are 9 April to 21 May 2002 (Gould leaves Punta Arenas, Chile on 7 April) and 31 July to 19 September (Gould leaves Punta Arenas, Chile on 29 July). Cruise schedule information is available on Raytheon web site. Chief scientists for the 2002 cruises will be the same as for the 2001 cruises: Wiebe (both survey cruises), Torres (April-May process cruise), Costa (August-September process cruise). The second survey cruise is extended because the first survey cruise is shorter and the ship time is available. Upcoming international SO GLOBEC cruises were next discussed. These are the United Kingdom austral spring cruise scheduled for October-November 2002, a German cruise in 2003, an Australian cruise in January-February 2003, and a Korean cruise to the Bransfield Strait in 2002 and 2003. The United Kingdom cruise may have space available for interested scientists. Interested persons should contact Eugene Murphy at the British Antarctic Survey.

Upcoming activities relevant to the U.S. SO GLOBEC program include: 1) preparation of an article for Oceanography Magazine; 2) the Second International GLOBEC Open Science Meeting scheduled for 15-18 October 2002 in Qingdao, China (SO GLOBEC results will be highlighted at this meeting); and 3) a special issue of Deep-Sea Research on SO GLOBEC results scheduled for late fall 2002. Papers submitted for the special issue of Deep-Sea Research can include some work outside of U.S. SO GLOBEC, but the information must be relevant to the program goals. Information on all of these will be made available at a later date.

The International GLOBEC Planning Office is compiling contributions list for a database of publications related to SO GLOBEC. Those having relevant publications are encouraged to provide this information to the International Office.

Bob Beardsley next gave an overview of the 2001 mooring deployment cruise. The objectives of this cruise were to: deploy the WHOI V/P/T/C moorings, deploy the Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO) acoustic moorings, and to do marine mammal observations/sampling. The mooring cruise deployed six WHOI moorings, eight SIO moorings, and six WHOI drifters; and made six bathymetric surveys, six CTD stations, marine mammal observations, sampled five whales for biopsies, and collected meteorological data for heat flux estimates. Beardsley showed a schematic diagram of the C1 mooring to be deployed during the February 2002 mooring cruise. This cruise will recover the six mooring deployed in 2001 and set three moorings. The new moorings will be across the mouth of Marguerite Bay. Beardsley also said that the 2002 mooring cruise will recover/redeploy the SIO acoustic moorings (seafloor recorder), undertake whale observations and collection of whale biopsies, if feasible.

Beardsley next discussed the status of the bathymetry data. He noted that there is little good bathymetry data for the SO GLOBEC study region. The CTD data and XBT data collected on the survey cruises will be used to correct SeaBeam data. Also, the data from the James Clark Ross extensive multibeam survey will be merged with the SeaBeam data. The British Antarctic Survey wants to collaborate and share data and they are doing bottom coring in three areas. Also, the SeaBeam data and centerline data from Gould will be merged into a grid. The next step is to go back and make sure that the best sound velocity data are used in correcting the SeaBeam data sets. The gridded bathymetry data could be produced uncorrected now, but someone will need to go back and check the sound-speed corrections.

Peter Wiebe next provided an overview of the two U.S. SO GLOBEC survey cruises, NBP01-03 and NBP01-04. The overall objective of these cruises was to survey the distribution and abundance of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) over the study area. He noted that on NBP01-03 two automatic weather stations (AWS) were successfully installed and that the ship's scientific personnel and some of the crew had an opportunity to visit the Argentine base, San Martin. The AWS installation was on islands associated with the Kirkwood and Faure Islands groups, but there are no names listed for the specific islands on which the weather stations were deployed. Wiebe suggested that the SO GLOBEC program should provide official names for these islands. Wiebe noted that there was little luck in finding penguins during this cruise; however, he said that the "iceberg graveyard" area (near the northern end of Alexander Island and off Lazarev Bay were hot spots for krill, seals, and seabirds.

On NBP01-04 there were two groups doing research directed at the objectives of the process cruise. The cruise track for this cruise was "simpler" than that for NBP01-03 because many of the stations could not be reached due to sea ice. Also, the Palmer worked with the Gould to get it out of the sea ice and to its stations. He showed images of a rendezvous with the Gould and of icebergs encountered during the cruise. A major ice buoy deployed at survey station 74.

The SeaBeam bathymetry data sets from the survey cruises are very good and are being combined with those from the James Clark Ross and Polarstern cruises to the Marguerite Bay region. This should be beneficial to many.

Wiebe ended his presentation with a thank you to the scientists and ship's crew for a great job and an acknowledgment of Mark Christmas and Raytheon's efforts.

Jose Torres provided and overview of the first process cruise, LMG01-04. The objective of this cruise was to give biological detail at predetermined locations within survey grid. He said that weather dictated many of station activities and locations. He noted that time on the cruise was devoted to searching for penguins and seals between Adelaide Island and Pourquoi Pas Island because these animals were not available at process station 1. The intent was to provide the needed resources to the predator groups on the process cruise. Some dive operations took place at end of cruise in Lazarev Bay. Torres suggested having a drop-off point around Avian Island for predator groups during the 2002 process cruise so that they will be able to obtain the data that they need to meet their scientific objectives. He noted that the only sea ice encountered of the April-May process cruise was in Lazarev Bay and that this was a good site for transmitter deployment on seals and penguins.

Dan Costa gave an overview of the second process cruise, LMG01-06, and reviewed the cruise objectives and cruise track. He also noted that weather dictated many of the scientific operations. The original cruise plan called for a series of ice stations as well as opportunistic ice observations and sampling with Zodiacs. During the cruise there was an opportunity to visit the British base, Rothera Station, on Adelaide Island.

Costa noted that the Gould had significant problems losing water and that the ship cannot make water while sitting in the ice water. The plumbing on the Gould froze and burst when conditions got very cold. Costa said that the Gould is not an effective platform for working in sea ice. It is also difficult to tow a MOCNESS in heavy sea ice.

The Gould visited Dion Island, where an emperor penguin group (nine breeding pairs) was surveyed on land. There were few Zodiac operations during the cruise, rather personnel baskets or gangplanks were used to put people on the ice.

CTD measurements were made in open water and at the ice camps; however, maintaining holes in the ice was quite a task. Under-ice diving did take place during the cruise, as well as transmitter deployment on crabeater seals and Adélie penguins.

Costa expressed concern about the 2002 schedule. The latter departure date put the cruise during a time of potentially heavier ice. Thus, the Gould will have to rely more heavily on the Palmerto move it. Costa expressed the concern that this might hamper the objectives of both cruises.

Alice Doyle next gave an update from Raytheon. She first discussed scheduling of the 2002 cruises and noted the concern about the later time for the second process cruise. She said that the Gould and Palmer have to go into dry dock, which takes about 6-8 weeks, between the two SO GLOBEC cruise periods. The scheduling of the two cruise periods is to allow this time. She also noted that with ships going in dry dock, everything must come off ships between the cruises.

Doyle next discussed the ESP SIP submission and said that it is here to stay, so people need to get used to it. She said that Brian Stone is the NSF contact for this and would be available for discussion of the ESP later in the meeting. Raytheon will work with people to make sure that doing SIPS in this manner goes well. Doyle said that SIPs for the last SO GLOBEC cruises are due in mid-January and asked everyone to get them in on time. She said that medical packets should have been received if a SIP was submitted.

The laboratory layouts on the Gould and Palmer should be similar to this year to what was done in the 2001 cruises. She asked if a nutrient technician was needed on both cruises. The agreement is that this person is needed for the Gould cruises. She then showed a listing of the Raytheon staffing of the SO GLOBEC cruises.

Doyle noted that permission is needed to use real time SeaWiFS data and that the sensor is turned off in mid-April. She said that procurement of the microstructure sensors is proceeding and that the sensors should be ready for the April-May cruise. She also said that new oxygen sensors have been ordered for the CTD. These sensors are supposed to not require lengthy soaking to equilibrate.

Jim Dolan, Raytheon Information Technology, described changes in the ship's electronic mail policy. The current e-mail policy allows only science-related communications and no personal attachments. The proposed new policy, which has been sent to NSF for approval, will allocate a certain daily quota for each user to be used at his/her discretion. This quota will be about 25k/day and can be used for scientific correspondence, personal correspondence, and combination of both. The intent of the new policy is to level the playing field for everyone using the email system on the ships. However, there will be special accounts set up for the chief scientists and Raytheon personnel that will allow a larger quota. Users who go over the daily allocation will have to pay for the excess. There will be a daily accounting of usage and the quota allocated for the chief scientist has not yet been determined. Electronic mail related to public outreach will have to be pre-approved through NSF (in SIP). Dolan said that this policy needs to be approved by NSF, but Raytheon is expecting to implement it by the first SO GLOBEC cruise.

Bill Fraser suggested setting up one science account and one personal account. Dolan responded saying that email not directly related to cruise, should not be done or should be paid for by the user. Wiebe suggested setting up an account to pay for non-cruise-related e-mail. He also asked that as chief scientist could he have the best picture of the day accompany the daily report. Doyle said that this is possible within reason?the picture does not have to be high resolution. Hofmann noted that the picture of the seal with an attached satellite transmitter sent by Dan Costa with his cruise report has gotten wide publicity.

Dolan next said that a new SIMRAD system is being installed on the N.B. Palmer and should be operational by the final cruise SO GLOBEC survey cruise. So, this will be the first cruise with the new bottom mapping system. He said that a lot of personnel allocated to project to make sure this system works.

Doyle next said that expense reports for the meeting were available and if anyone had questions to contact her. She said that the expense reports should be submitted to her along with the yellow travel authorization form. Hotel rooms will be billed directly to Raytheon. Lunch and dinner reimbursement can be determined by deducting 25% from $46 because breakfast is provided.

Bernie Lettau next gave an update from NSF. He said that there is an issue with the microstructure measurements and that he is looking to the SO GLOBEC SSC to provide input on how to solve the issue. Hofmann said that the issue is that Tom Powell who was funded to make microstructure measurements (a key measurement in this program) has withdrawn from program and plans to return his funding to the NSF. As a result, one field season has already happened with no microstructure measurements. She said that Alice Doyle has funds that have been allocated for microstructure sensors and that these have been ordered. Laurie Padman's group is now taking over the responsibility to make the needed measurements. Lettau said that NSF would like a formal proposal from Padman to do this work so that there can be a contractual relationship. Hofmann asked if a standard peer review of the proposal would be needed since the need for the measurements was covered in the initial proposal that was funded. Lettau said that no external review would be needed. Padman asked if this can be done before NSF received notification from Powell. Lettau said that the two activities can go forward simultaneously. He also said that he has not received notification of Powell's withdrawal from the SO GLOBEC program. Hofmann said that she will remind Powell to notify NSF.

Polly Penhale said that she had received a letter from the U.S. GLOBEC SSC (via Hofmann discussions) about funding to support synthesis and modeling activities following the SO GLOBEC field work. Penhale said that she is anticipating a June 2003 deadline for proposals in this area which will mean issuing an announcement of opportunity (AO) in early 2003. She requested guidance from the SO GLOBEC SSC for the AO. She also noted that Phil Taylor in Ocean Sciences will be a good resource for her in structuring a synthesis and modeling program because of his experience with the JGOFS program. Penhale said that in order to apply for these funds, data from the individual components and investigators needs to be publicly available, which is consistent with the GLOBEC data policy. Individuals or groups that do not meet the data policy requirements should not apply for additional synthesis and modeling funds.

Wiebe said to contact him if there are questions about posting data to the GLOBEC data management system. Hofmann said that much of the preliminary data are on the data system; this is the information that is in the individual cruise reports. Daly asked if there are data requirements for Office of Polar Programs. Penhale said that this is in the award letter sent to individual investigators.

Bob Beardsley brought up the issue of air flow distortion around the Palmer and Gould and the potential effect of this on meteorological measurements. He mentioned that there are computer programs that can be used to determine air flow around ships that take into account the ship structure. The intent is to use these programs to analyze the air flow around the Palmer and Gould. The results of the analysis would then be used to modify the locations of meteorological sensors, such as wind speed and direction. Beardsley said that he brought this up at the ARVOC (Antarctic Research Vessels Oversight Committee) meeting in October at Woods Hole. He indicated that he would continue to pursue this.

The issue of needing a nutrient technician on the Gould cruises was raised again. Dan Costa said that this person could do nutrients and salinometer measurements on the cruise. He said that the person on LMG01-06 was not aware that measurements other than nutrients were needed and that this caused some confusion and misunderstanding on the cruise. Chris Fritsen said that the nutrient technician did samples to support his water column and sea ice work. Doyle asked if this person was really needed for the first cruise when sea ice is not extensive. Torres said that there are still background measurements that are needed and Daly said that it is important to have calibration information for the CTD, as well as water column measurements. Torres said that the nutrient technician on LMG01-04 seemed to not be occupied full-time. Doyle said that this person could then do the needed oxygen and salinity calibration samples. Torres said that he would like the person to run ammonia determinations to help with some of his one-board experiments. Wiebe said that it is important to get as much coverage as possible during the first cruise. Bob Kluckhohn (Raytheon) said that part of the problem with the Gould nutrient technician was a breakdown in communication in that the needs were not listed clearly on the SIPs. Costa was because the need for this person was decided after the SIPs were submitted. Hofmann said that the discussion indicated the need for a nutrient technician on both Gould cruises.

Beardsley said that it would be helpful if people indicated specific areas for which they wanted good bathymetry. If there are special mapping requirements this can be worked into the cruise plan for the first cruise.

Laurie Padman asked about satellite data and said that there is not much of this on the GLOBEC web site and that it would be helpful to have more. Joey Comiso (NASA) said that the complete sea ice data set is available and he will provide a link to it. Wiebe said that this can be linked to the GLOBEC data management site.

Following the lunch break, Debbie Thiele, who represents the International Whaling Commission (IWC), made a presentation. She said that the IWC Scientific Committee is very excited about the preliminary data from the first SO GLOBEC field season. She extended a thank you to SO GLOBEC from the IWC for the opportunity to participate in the program. She said that on the first season cruises the IWC had been able to obtain visual surveys, whale biopsies, and photographic identification of several animals. She said that IWC observers will be going on the U.S. SO GLOBEC cruises in 2002 and the British Antarctic Survey Frontal cruise, scheduled for October-November 2002. She said that she is now working on a review paper on cetaceans in the Southern Ocean which should be available in 2002. Thiele also said that there will be a special session on SO GLOBEC results at the IWC Scientific Committee Meeting in 2003.

Thiele next presented of framed photos of whales from the Southern Ocean to Alice Doyle from the IWC for the Gould, the Palmer, and Raytheon. Thiele said these were in thanks for the assistance received from the ship's crews and Raytheon personnel. She said that the fine-scale data obtained on the SO GLOBEC cruises will be considerable help to the IWC, especially in regard to environmental issues.

Bob Beardsley next reported on the status of the AWS that were deployed during NBP01-03 on Kirkwood Island (#8930) and Dismal Island (#8932) in May 2001. (This report is available as a PowerPoint presentation.) He said that the AWS use a R.M. Young wind monitor and measure temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure. Data are then transmitted via an ARGOS link to the Antarctic Weather Research Center at the University of Wisconsin (AWRC). The data on the AWRC site are of excellent quality and the measurements from the two stations agree well. This is expected since the stations are separated by about 30 miles. This suggests that the orientation of units was done correctly. Beardsley thanked the Raytheon staff for their efforts in successfully deploying the AWS. He mentioned that it might be worth checking the AWS on the 2002 cruises. Doyle said that this is a good idea. Wiebe said that this would have to be done on the first cruise and could be added to the cruise plan.

Beardsley said that the winds measured at Rothera lower and much more polarized than those measured at the AWS locations because of mountains surrounding Rothera. Thus, it is not a good idea to use the winds measured at Rothera for winds in Marguerite Bay. A comparison between winds measured at the two AWS and those measured at Palmer Station have better agreement. Comparison with the winds measured on the Palmer was good when the Palmer was near the AWS. Beardsley said that the flow distortion around the ship has about a 10% effect on wind speed. The comparison of winds at two stations is good when done with wind stress. The two AWS do not provide redundant information and can help with approximate timing of storms. Beardsley noted that the stronger winds tend to be southward. He said that the meteorological data use the convention of day 1.5 being noon on 1 January. Wiebe noted that the ship data use the other convention, with year day 1 being 1 January. Padman asked if there should be a standard convention. Wiebe said that JGOFS uses both and that Bob Groman (GLOBEC data base manager) maintains the data with both conventions. Wiebe said that the U.S. Naval Observatory uses 31 December at noon to 1 January at noon as day 1. The issue is to get the convention straight in the database.

Wiebe next lead a discussion on the 2002 fieldwork plans. He began by reviewing the 2001 field season. He said that the 84 stations in survey grid and the 5 process sites proposed for the 2001 field season did not take place as planned. He said that there is a need to develop a conceptual framework on how second cruise will be done. He suggested starting by constructing a timeline for the cruise. He also said that he did not anticipate having to spend much time on space allocation on the ships because there should not be much change from what was done on the 2001 cruises.

The 2002 field season discussion was tabled for later when Brian Stone (NSF) arrived to discuss the ESP system and long-range planning with Raytheon. He said that efforts are ongoing to redo the current system and that the new system is following the FastLane model for submission of information. The intent is to move toward a web-enabled program and the goal is to have a purely web-based system by FY2004. He said that parts of ESP are working and the intent is to continue to maintain this system. The new system will be called Polar Ice.

Wiebe next continued the discussion of the 2002 cruises. Alterations to personnel will be two IWC people in April 2002. Ashjian asked about science writers on the cruise. Hofmann said that National Geographic is trying to find a corporation to underwrite expenses, but that this is not likely to happen. Penhale said that science writers should be coordinated with Peter West at NSF.

Roger Harvey said that he would prefer to have two people on the April 2002 cruise instead of on winter cruise. Chris Fritsen said that his group will not go on the April cruise so Harvey could have these bunks. Thiele requested one bunk on the April Gould cruise for an IWC observer. Wiebe noted that Harvey's bunks on the Gould July 2002 will go to zero. On the Palmer April 2002 cruise, the ODU group needs one more person for CTDs. There are two berths for science writers and two additional berths available. On the Palmer July 2002 cruise the berthing is already at a maximum. Hofmann said that she will contact Chilean colleagues and see if they have an interest in the April survey cruise. Beardsley asked if the Raytheon ETs would be responsible for checking the ASW during the April Palmer cruise. Doyle said that Raytheon can take care of this. Wiebe summarized the April survey cruise as consisting of AWS service, mooring bathymetric survey (sites not done in 2001), diet sampling of birds/penguins, survey predator hot spots, and krill migration study.

Bill Fraser next discussed setting up a field camp at the south end of Adelaide Island on Avian Island during the April 2002 Gould cruise. The field camp would be used for predator studies. The field camp would be occupied for 7-10 days and then the predator work would move south to Marguerite Bay. Fraser said that, in April, Adélie penguins are at the breeding colonies and a field camp would allow obtaining time series of diet samples. He noted that data from 2001 indicated that male and female penguins are taking different prey at different depths. He said that it would be good to have a Mark III Zodiac at the field camp for safety, so that people could head to the nearby Chilean base if needed.

Costa noted that a field camp will allow the predator groups to get work done while the open water work is taking place. Jennifer Burns said that she is talking with scientists at the British Antarctic Survey about getting into Rothera to do some work with seals. Torres asked if there is any interest in working with elephant or fur seals. Burns said that there are any plans to tag these. She is working on getting permission from Rothera. Wiebe noted that the 2002 April planning would need to include time to stop at Rothera to drop the Burns group, stop at Avian to drop Fraser's group, and then go to process station 1. Torres noted that unless there is a protected area, he cannot deploy gear in winds greater than 30 knots. Fraser noted that the Chileans have a hut on Avian Island that is in a sheltered and protected site that can be used by the field team if needed. Torres noted that if the if predator groups still have work to do, the Gould can move to process station 2 and then pick them up. Burns said that her group is allowed to go into Rothera, they will be limited to working close to shore. Torres said that the plan for the April 2002 cruise will probably be to go to process sites 1, 2, 5, 4, George VI Sound, and then to Lazarev Bay. Burns noted that north of Adelaide Island in Matha Strait is a hot spot for crabeater seals. Thiele noted that this is also a hot spot for whales and krill. Wiebe asked if there was interest in putting a process station at this site. Torres suggested also sampling in Hanusse Bay or Crystal Sound. The agreement was to think about the Gould process cruises and return to the topic later.

Joey Comiso (NASA) next made a presentation on satellite-derived distributions of sea ice cover in the Antarctic and specifically in the SO GLOBEC area. The data from 2001 show the changes in the sea ice cover in the Antarctic Peninsula region. He noted that there was no sea ice in April and May in the SO GLOBEC study region. Comiso said that he can provide sea ice data upon request.

Comiso noted that the sea ice area has not changed for the Southern Hemisphere, except for the region of the Ross Sea, where it is increasing, and the Bellingshausen Sea, where it is decreasing. The question is then is the sea ice being advected from the Bellingshausen Sea to the Ross Sea OR is something going on in the Ross Sea? The largest change in sea ice extent and area occurs in the austral autumn. Comiso showed that temperature and sea ice extent can be correlated. Thus, temperature time series can be used as a proxy for what has happened to sea ice extent in the last twenty years. This correlation shows a warming trend around the Antarctic Peninsula (Bellingshausen Sea) during 1982-1999. Comiso said that sea ice extent data depend on how well ice margin is defined. The next sea ice satellite launch is scheduled for August 2003 and there will be aircraft overflights for validation. The disadvantage is that SO GLOBEC will be over by then.

Don Perovich made a presentation on results from the sea ice studies undertaken during the July-August 2001 Gould cruise. This presentation is available as a PowerPoint presentation. Perovich said that the data from this study will soon be available via the GLOBEC data management web site and on CD-ROM.

Following the presentations, discussion returned to cruise planning for the August-September 2002 Gould cruise. Wiebe noted that the original plan in 2001 was to start at the southern end of the study region and move northward. However, changes will have to occur in 2002 since the cruise is two weeks later than in 2001 and the desire is to avoid having the Palmer move the Gould everywhere. Ice camps should not be a problem on the 2002 cruise. It is not clear if the Gould can get to process station 3. Wiebe asked if this station is a priority. Costa said that some felt that not visiting process station 3 was significant scientific loss. Fritsen said that the observed sea ice processes in 2001 did not cover very large range. The objective is to try to get ice camps in areas where sea ice has been in place as long as possible in order to get a gradient in sea ice history. Process station 3 is at a location where the change in sea ice is greater. He suggested staying away from coastal current because of shear stress effects on sea ice. Hofmann mentioned that the coastal current may be a seasonal feature.

Wiebe asked about starting with a basic scenario for the cruise. Costa said that because of the later time of the cruise, it is possible that many predators will be missed as they may have already moved north. There was concern expressed about moving into heavier pack ice and no open water. Thus, another option is to get into Crystal Sound/Marguerite Bay early in the cruise to catch the predators. Torres asked if there is a coastal polynya there? Costa said that the Gould could not get in there at the end of the August 2001 cruise although they had planned to go in to find polynya. Wiebe said that the Palmer observed lots of open leads, but not a polynya. Fraser said a consideration should be if hot spots are available. If so, the complete system should receive priority as sampling site for both ships. He said that the polynya off Rothera, near Avian Island, is an area where predators are focused all winter long. Wiebe said the station grid should be extended to include this and to target it at the end of the cruise for special studies.

Beardsley said that this is an area where the coastal current is coming down off Adelaide Island. He suggested extending the first transect inshore to get a sense of where that flow is coming from. Wiebe said that fifty days gives more opportunity to do 90 stations and still help the Gould. Fraser suggested doing a rapid survey to see what it is about the region that attracts the predators. Wiebe suggested working out a sampling strategy for a hot spot. Ashjian noted that in 2001 an opportunity was missed when hundreds of seals were observed around ship and this spot was never found it again after the survey. Thus, we should not do entire grid and then come back to hot spot because it might not be there. Harvey suggested having a plan for expected hot spots that allows the two ships to rendezvous. Costa said a hot spot process station could be the last site. Process site 2 worked reasonably well for everyone. He suggested deleting process site 4 entirely. Fritsen said this is a reasonable target since the cruise has ten extra days to allocate to studies. Wiebe said that cruise planning has to be done with a scenario that makes sense from both perspectives (Palmer helping Gould).

Costa asked about the Palmer getting stuck on the cruise that followed the August 2001 SO GLOBEC cruise. The response was that the Palmer got stuck in mouth of Marguerite Bay at end of September/first of October and that there was 15-20 m of overrafted ice. The comment was made that the Gould should not go into Crystal Sound without the Palmer nearby. Wiebe said that on the August 2001 cruise, the Palmer did not have any problem working along the mid and outer shelf. Getting to stations inshore required lots of backing and ramming. Wiebe said that he would prefer to work the survey grid in one direction and requested people to think of options of how to meet needs of both cruises and bring this to the discussion on Wednesday.

The meeting was adjourned.

Tuesday Minutes 

Hofmann began the meeting by letting everyone know that the SO GLOBEC SSC met the previous night at dinner. One result of this meeting is Dan Costa agreed to host a krill hot spot meeting in late June 2002 in Santa Cruz, CA. More information on this will be forthcoming from Dan Costa.

Note: Tuesday was devoted to presentations of results from the 2001 field season. The list of presentations is given in the meeting agenda and abstracts for individual presentations are available. The following is a brief listing of the presentations and some results.

Presentation by Limeburner (available as PowerPoint) on surface drifters

-deep floats were not deployed in 2001 (float at 200-300 m)

-deployed fourteen drifters in 2001

-had poor data return (average of 50 days)

-inflow occurs in top ¾ of mouth of Marguerite Bay; outflow occurs in bottom ¼ of mouth of Bay

-cruise in February 2002 to recover moorings and deploy moorings, drifters, and floats

-new moorings will be placed across mouth of Marguerite Bay

Presentation by Hofmann on hydrography and circulation

-described distribution of Circumpolar Deep Water

-much greater variability in NBP01-03 than NBP01-04

-seasonal variability in the above pycnocline waters

-no Antarctic Surface Water present in winter

-presence of UCDW is not seasonally dependent

-modified UCDW dominates thermohaline properties of this region

-what is going on above 150 m is seasonally variable

-gyre sets off Adelaide Island shelf

-changes in the strength and location of the ACC may have pronounced effects on the residence time and flushing of the subpycnocline waters on the WAP continental shelf

Presentation by Fanning (available as PowerPoint) on nutrient distributions

-upper ocean nutrient values increase between cruises, suggesting remineralization

-ammonia: very high concentrations (> 4 µM) on NBP01-03

-ammonia concentration declines in upper water column

-deep ammonia concentrations remain at zero

-standing stock of ammonia decreased in NBP01-04

-nitrate:ammonia change ratio suggests that all of nitrate did not come from nitrification in the same waters

-very high standing stock of ammonia in Marguerite Bay

Presentation by Howard (available as PowerPoint) on ADCP measurements

-good regional coverage and process data from Gould process sites

-ice really interfered with data collection in winter

-currents at shelf break - eddy is present

-high frequency variability in data

-evidence of strong vertical shear

Presentation by Fritsen on sea ice

-region has early and long-lasting ice cover

-program consists of remote sensing, ice observations, ice sampling, ice instrumentation, ice/water/krill interface dynamics, and modeling

-strong latitudinal gradient from southern end to northern end of grid (thickness - change of ~20 cm)

-no clear cut vertical trend of algal biomass

-a lot more biomass in the ice than in the water column

-not a lot of nutrient depletion indicated

-two weeks can lead to significantly different ice growth trajectories

-two weeks can account for substantial difference in primary production and algal growth

-flooding-freezing prevalent; mesoscale gradients exist in region

-late-forming ice cover; cycling/degradation dominated system (physically and biologically mediated)

Presentation by Ashjian on Antarctic krill distribution

-larval krill distribution

-big difference between amount of data between two Palmer cruises (ice cover and technical difficulties)

-survey between 25-250 m

-greatest abundances of larval krill along pycnocline (AASW, Winter Water, and upper portion of modified UCDW)

-for NBP01-03: high abundances above thermocline and associated with Winter Water; maximum abundances found at 50-100 m depth range; and higher abundances at offshore portions of the shelf, shelf break, and in the southern portion of the grid

-abundances of plankton in the water column were much reduced during winter cruise

Presentation by Torres on Antarctic krill metabolism

-describe abundance and distribution of larger size classes of krill

-focus on metabolism, excretion, and physiological condition

-distribution of adults tended to be towards the coast

-adults completely absent around process station 1

-metabolism measurements: requires about 50% less energy to get through day in winter

Presentation by Wiebe on BIOMAPER II acoustic mapping

-some vertical migration did occur in northern end of grid

-hot spots for krill off Alexander Island, Laubeuf Fjord, and northwest corner of Alexander Island down to Lazarev Bay

-major concentrations were mostly in upper 120 m of water column

-acoustic backscattering was substantially lower during NBP01-04 compared to NBP01-03

Adjourn for lunch 

Following lunch, the winter cruise plans for the Gould were again briefly discussed. Costa discussed extending the study region to include a transect along the northern end of Adelaide Island (Crystal Sound), working down the coast of Adelaide Island, going down towards process station 3, moving inshore near process station 2, and then out to process station 1, with ice camps at each station. Time during this will be spent looking for predators because most predators will move out of southern region at this time. The plan is to occupy the hot spot areas early in the cruise on when conditions are more favorable, to do ice camps, and to make a commitment to predator work as available. The amount of time spent at each site is difficult to determine in advance. Three to four days at Crystal Sound would be ideal for the predator work.

Ashjian asked if this plan will mean that the Palmer will lose transect time. Hofmann said that the intent is to do joint-ship operations early on in cruise. Ashjian said that the Palmer could do the first three survey lines while the Gould is working in Crystal Sound. Wiebe said that the intent is to keep the two ships within a region, not next to each other. There is also a need to cut down number of stations in grid (70-80) based on the experience from the July-August 2001 survey. Fritsen said that this plan gives 42-44 days with 8 days at each station for Gould. Wiebe said that Costa and Fraser need more time throughout cruise to look for animals. Doyle asked if Fraser's needs would be better served on Palmer. Wiebe said that the Palmer bunks for the winter cruise are already filled. Costa said that there needs to be more effort at time scheduling for both ships. Wiebe said that the predator people need access to animals and Ashjian asked if working in Crystal Sound could mean losing process site 1 (trade-off). Fritsen said that it is important to get a site to the south. Costa said that process site 1 probably would not be lost, but time at the site could be significantly shortened. Costa said that the Gould might not be able to do Crystal Sound on its own (joint ship operations). The intent is to tag birds and seals and do stomach contents on ice floes in this area. Burns said that the seal group had worked on remnant ice during the previous cruises and so this is possible. Costa said that at the beginning of cruise is the greatest opportunity for Gould to operate on its own; however, the decision to do this is up to the captain. The discussion was ended at this point and will be returned to on Wednesday.

Presentation by Daly on Antarctic krill distribution and metabolism

-evaluate behavioral and overwintering strategies using acoustic data, net samples, and dive collections

-estimate a carbon and nitrogen budget

-both larval and adult krill found in large numbers in back bays of Marguerite Bay

-during fall: abundant larvae; larvae under sea ice; no juveniles; immature adults in fjords

-during winter: larvae in water column and under sea ice; no juveniles; aggregated adults; little to no growth

Presentation by Wiebe on ROV and microzooplankton studies (for Scott Gallager)

-ROV work under sea ice for larval krill distribution

-presented video of larval krill under ice in large numbers

-largest concentrations associated with rough ice and deep protrusions

-no significant onshore/offshore gradient

-diatom species considerably lower in winter

-furcillia were found to be feeding on microzooplankton

Presentation by Harvey on krill aging studies

-age structure and diet history of krill

-fairly limited data set

-biochemical approach to determine age structure of krill using lipid biomarkers

-eye diameter is a good measurement, as eye size does not shrink with body shrinkage

-a lot of sea ice in winter; not able to do much MOCNESS work to collect samples

-group will switch to fall cruise in 2002 to get more samples

Presentation by Zhou on circulation and krill interactions

-relationship between circulation patterns and krill distribution

-use MOCNESS with OPC

-big aggregation of E. superba in Laubeuf Fjord

Presentation by Flierl on circulation and krill patchiness models

-biological and physical mechanisms of patch formation

-modeling of patchiness (population dynamics)

-patches are used for predator avoidance (i.e., fish schools)

-taxis, kinesis (biological mechanisms)

-advection, diffusion (physical mechanisms), convection, tides

Presentation by Fraser on Adélie penguin tagging and diet sampling

-Adélie penguins: diet work and satellite tags (Anvers Island, Adelaide Island, and Lazarev Bay)

-deployed total of 15 tags

-large-scale movements coherent with an expanding ice edge

-small-scale movements coherent with coastal and other polynyas

-females ate fish; males' diets were dominated by krill

-very marked difference in how males and females split water column

-polynyas are key focal points of foraging activity

-female mortality at Palmer Station could depend on absence of fish

Presentation by McDonald on passive acoustics for cetacean studies

-mysticete whale acoustic census

-deployed eight acoustic recorders on sea floor

-passive recordings of baleen whale calls for one year

-sonobuoys used opportunistically

-current best estimate of blue whales is 500-5000

-humpbacks in this area are same as Costa Rican ones

-about twenty geographic variations in blue whale call type

-humpback song varies geographically

-fin whale geographic variation

Presentation by Burns on seal tagging studies

-objective is to understand foraging behavior of crabeater seals

-gas anesthesia used; worked very well

-tagged eight seals in spring (Laubeuf Fjord and Lazarev Bay)

-seals moved northward going into winter

-seal dive records show dives exceeding 250 m

-average dive duration is 6.5 minutes

-spend substantial time under water

-looks like seals are following something that is vertically migrating

-length of lactation period and fasting data ("Jemma" birthed a pup)

Presentation by Friedlaender on IWC cetacean distribution studies

-baleen whale distribution

-visual sightings: line transect sighting survey done daylight

-comparison of cetaceans with hydrographic features

-biopsy sampling for stock structure and health assessment

Presentation by Chapman on seabird distribution

-observations of seabirds and seals

-distribution may tell about surface expression of important biological processes

-survival depends on ability to predictably locate food

-continuous survey methodology: strip transects at 300 m, 30 min. transects

-fall: large-scale association

-winter: small-scale association

Issues arising from presentations to be considered for future study are:

1) the role of sea ice mediating predation pressure; and 

2) two-ship operations in 2002 are to explore "hot spots" are encouraged.

The meeting was adjourned for the day.

Wednesday Minutes 

Presentation by Hyatt (available as PowerPoint) on fine-scale structure

-winter data for vertical fine structure

-surface mixed layer generally deeper along shelf and in Marguerite Bay

-density is dominated by salt gradient

-molecular diffusive processes important

-surface mixed layer was variable (time-dependent feature)

Presentation by Beardsley on meteorology and surface forcing

-surface forcing: shipboard meteorological measurements and AWS data from mouth of Marguerite Bay

-maximum wind speed: 60 mph/53 kts; experienced gale winds 40% of the time

-storms increase in frequency and strength into winter, resulting in large wind stress

-surface cooling increases into winter, with longwave radiation cooling dominant in fall

Presentation by Hofmann on circulation modeling studies (for Klinck)

-description of regional circulation model

-Ross Sea and western Antarctic Peninsula (regional model forced by larger scale processes)

-nitrate and silicate implemented as passive tracers

-predominantly south flow into Marguerite Bay

-episodic inputs of CDW onto shelf

-caution about using climatologies (temperature and salinity are too high)

-eddy structures down in George VI Sound

-flow is predominantly bathymetry-controlled in Marguerite Bay region

-model output fields available via U.S. JGOFS SMP Live Access Server

Note: request by Daly to add area "hot spots" behind Adelaide Island to models

Presentation by Ashjian on zooplankton distribution

-twenty-four MOCNESS tows (NBP01-03) and seventeen MOCNESS tows (NBP01-04)

-silhouette analysis to describe taxonomic composition and biomass (abundances)

-biomass was greatest inshore and during fall (except offshore in winter)

-larval krill was dominant mid-shelf with greater abundances during fall

-large euphausiids dominate Marguerite Bay

-small copepods numerically dominant at all times/places except winter - inshore where large copepods are more abundant

-larval euphausiids usually in upper 50-100 m; larger euphausiids deeper

-biomass and abundances greatest inside Marguerite Bay

-less biomass and lower abundances were observed in water column during winter than during fall

Presentation by Torres on fish distribution

-pelagic fish fauna: oceanic species and coastal fishes (endemics) native to Antarctica

-lantern fishes and deep sea smelts dominant

-Electrona antarcticum (lantern fish) generally found offshore; dominant up to 500 m; circum-Antarctic distribution

-deep sea smelt: dominant in 500-1000 m depth stratum

-Pleuragramma antarcticum (Antarctic silverfish) found in coastal regions and shelf break, present onshore, and have coastal distribution

-produce biological antifreezes

-fish fauna is oceanic and endemic mix

-desirable data for 2002: 1) day-night distributions; 2) shelf-canyon interactions; and 3) benthic-water column interactions (bottom tows)

Presentation by Wiebe on strobe light study

-use of flashing strobe light with MOCNESS to reduce net avoidance by krill because krill are difficult to catch with nets

-high-powered strobe light (1500 W with beam fan angle of 30°) with three-second flashing rate to reduce avoidance effect

-significantly more biovolume caught by nets with strobe

-significant difference between numbers of large krill caught with strobe on; difference is not significant for small krill

Presentation by Vernet on primary production measurement

-estimation of primary production rates done during fall and winter cruises

-daily rate of carbon incorporation and photosynthesis vs. irradiance

-measure biomass as chlorophyll, carbon, and nitrogen

-results: very low phytoplankton primary production; decrease in water column primary production from fall to winter; phytoplankton production is limited by underwater light levels

-environmental factors affecting photosynthesis: temperature (low: -1.8 to 3°C); high nutrients; and low light (short daylength and high sun angle)

-phytoplankton growth is limited by underwater irradiance: fall - low incident radiation and winter - low transmission through ice and snow

-until ice melts or opens up, phytoplankton growth does not take off

-light seems to be main factor controlling low production

Note: Wiebe suggested looking at Laubeuf Fjord polynya. Vernet said that this system seems to remain open because of strong north winds, the bulk of chlorophyll are small flagellates and production in the ice is where action is. Beardsley asked if there are no algae for krill to eat in winter. Daly said that the krill larvae were eating molts, glacial silts, and fecal pellets. Wiebe said that in early April a huge diatom bloom was observed in Marguerite Bay observed by the German SO GLOBEC cruise.

Presentation by Wiebe on data management

-SO GLOBEC data management system is up and running with lots of data already on it

-explanation of maneuvering data site

-asked for suggestions of how to present data

-stressed importance of event logs

-cruise reports, data, and event logs are posted

-data managements system has plotting capabilities

-allows people to serve their own data if they wish

-contact data management office for help in getting data served

-goal of data management office is to enable and foster access to all U.S. GLOBEC data via a consistent interface

-data management office working to make visualization of data effective

-can download software for GeoZui3D from University of New Hampshire for 3D visualization

-software uses open display graphics card

Note: Request was made to please get data to data management office soon!

Adjourn for lunch

The afternoon session consisted of developing detailed cruise plans for the April-May 2002 process cruise and detailed cruise plans for the August-September survey and process cruises.

Note: These cruise plans are posted on the SO GLOBEC web site.

There being no other business, the meeting was adjourned.